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Pathology of Nematode Infections
Terms in this set (27)
What are the three main ways in which a parasite causes pathology in an animal?
2. Blood sucking
3. Non-physical effects
What are two examples of non-physical effects a parasite can cause on an animal?
1. Nutrient competition
2. Effect structure and function of the gut
What are four examples of traumatic effects parasites can have on an animal?
1. Plug feeding
What are six effects larvae can induce in parasitic gastroenteritis
1. Increase cell turn over rate
2. Thickening of the mucosa (hyperplasia)
3. Enlargement of the abomasum
4. Less chief and parietal cells and more goblet cells (metaplasia)
5. Increase mucus production
6. Presence of inflammatory cells
What distribution do larval infections causing parasitic gastroenteritis cause?
What five affects does the emergence of adults have on parasitic gastroenteritis?
1. "Morrocan-leather" appearance to the abomasum
2. Decreased acid production therefore increased pH of digesta
3. Gastrin secretion (from increased pH and inflammatory cells)
4. Loosening of tight cell junction
5. Ulceration (T. axei and Hyostrongylus)
What distribution does adult emergence cause on parasitic gastroenteritis cause?
What six effects does parasitic infection in the small intestine have on the small intestine?
1. Increased cell turn over
2. Mucosal thickening
3. Villi shortening and joining (at the tip)
4. Increased mucus production
5. Loosening of tight junctions (electrolyte, water and protein loses)
6. Mast cell and eosinophil presence
What portion (fraction) of the small intestine do most parasite infection occur?
What portion (fraction) of the small intestine does most protein absorption occur in?
What are the three effects of parasitic infection in the large intestine?
1. Increased hyperplasia
2. Increased mucus production
3. Increased cell turnover
What are the main two (traumatic) effects parasites have in the large intestine?
1. Tunnelling/exit holes
2. Plug feeding
What is the destiny of protein lost in the abomasum?
What is the destiny of protein lost in the small intestine?
Most reabsorbed in the ileum
What are the two main causes of "protein draining" during nematode infection of the GIT?
1. Enterocyte loss
2. Blood (albumin) loss
What are two ways enterocytes interfere with protein status of the body?
1. Accountable for 24-45% of protein metabolism
2. Lack of absorption/transport
What are the effects of parasitic protein losing gastroenteropathies on feed conversion effeciency?
1. Decreased food intake
2. Decreased food absorption
Note: this causes body weight to drop but NO change to body levels of Ca and P
What are the effects of parasitic protein losing gastroenteropathies on nitrogen balance?
Mobilises it from muscle stores (effecting weight and growth)
What are the effects of protein losing gastroenteropathies on albumin level?
Loss of albumin causing increased albumin turn over
How is albumin lost due to protein losing gastroenteroipathies?
1. Leakage through tight cell junctions
2. Protein diversion from enterocytes for example
What can be the effects on albumin loss through protein losing gastroenteroipathies?
Oedema, decrease in blood transportation of metabolites/minerals
True or False
Parasitic infection causes anorexia in animals
Affecting weight and growth
What are four causes of diarrhoea?
1. Osmotic diarrhoea
2. Decreased strength of tight cell junction
3. Secretory excess
4. Increased motility
What are three ways in which parasitic infection causes diarrhoea primarily?
1. Decreased tight cell junction strength
2. Immune/inflammatory reaction causing increased permiability
How can diarrhoea and anorexia interact in animals, to multiply the effects of parasitic infection?
Anorexia decreases water intake (decreased DM intake = decreased water intake)
What effects does parasitic infection have on the blood that can cause bone marrow depression?
Fe and nitrogen loss
How can parasitic infection cause anaemia?
Loss of RBC's, Fe and nitrogen deficiency depresses bone marrow function
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