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An empirical investigation structured to answers questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers).
In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior
An ability to reflect on, evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
The Uncritical Acceptance
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of onesself
The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations, while forgetting discrepancies
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms
a form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.
1. Making observations
2. defining a problem
3. proposing a hypothesis
4. gathering evidence/ testing the hypothesis
5. building a theory
6. publishing results
The Predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables
Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. For example "hunger" might be defined as "the number of hours of food deprivation"
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations
The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people help people adapt to their environments
Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions
An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception, in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to the person
The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
A freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconcious conflicts
A psychologist who accepts the broad features of Freud's theory but has revised the theory to fit his or her own concepts
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideas
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices, and actions if all such causes were known
The traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occuring at the level of the individual
The focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders (can prescribe medication)
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis (hypnosis.. i think)
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not invovling serious mental disorder; for ex. marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
Psychiactric social worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
HUMANS (ALSO REFERRED TO AS PARTICIPANTS) OR ANIMALS WHOSE BEHAVIOR IS INVESTIGATED IN AN EXPERIMENT
Any condition that changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The valuesthat this variable takes are chosen by the experiment. Suspected causes for differences in behavior
Measure the results of the experiment. that is, they reveal the effects that independent variables have on behavior. (test scores?)
conditions researchers wish to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment.
in a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable
the use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups
Research Participants Bias
Changes in behavior of research participants caused by the unintended influence of their own expectations
changes in behavior due to participants' expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect
An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion
An arrangement in which participants remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group
Changes in participants' behavior caused by unintended influence of researchers actions
a prediction that prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true
An arrangement in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of whether participants are in the experimental group or the control group, uncluding who might have been administered a drug or a placebo
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his/her expectations
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior
The existence of a consistent, systematic realtionship between two events, measures, or variables
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
Coefficient of Correlation
A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.
C of C of 0 means no relationship!
C of C outside of -1.0 or +1.0 = ERROR!
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in the other (or decreases correspone with decreases
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other
an in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person (something happened to one person and there is no way to study it through many occurences.. rare)
Natural Clinical Test
An accident or other natural event that allows the gathering of data on a psychological phenomenon of interest
a small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category (ex. all college students)
Father of psych, from Germany, 1879, studied concious experience... eventually called "experimental self-observation", looking in.. introspective, stimulus
-broke thinking down into basic parts, called the structure of thinking
-thought structuralism was too narrow in focus
-functionalists wanted to find out how the mind, perception, habits, and emotions help us adapt and survive
-watson said psychology is to be empirical
-believed we learn or develop our behavior through conditioning
*stimulus:physical energy, anything that causes a resoponse
*Respose:any reaction to stimuli
*Conditioning: process of learning by association/experience
*learning: relatively permanent change due to conditioning
ideas: psychoanalytical/ psychodynamic
*nothing is by chance
*everything is connected somehow
*early impacts later
*unconcious mind is most significant
3 Part of Personality according to Freud
-Id: totally unconcious, instincts, PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
-Ego: assists in balanced choices, REALITY PRICIPLE
Superego: right+wrong, must do right, MORALITY PRINCIPLE
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