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97 terms

General Psychology Chapter 1

Vocab and ppl
STUDY
PLAY
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Scientific Observation
An empirical investigation structured to answers questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers).
Research Method
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
Animal Model
In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior
Description
In scientific research, the process of naming and classifying
Understanding
In psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated.
Prediction
An ability to accurately forecast behavior.
Control
Altering conditions that influence behavior
Critical Thinking
An ability to reflect on, evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information
Pseudopsychology
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
The Uncritical Acceptance
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of onesself
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations, while forgetting discrepancies
Barnum Effect
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms
Scientific Method
a form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.
1. Making observations
2. defining a problem
3. proposing a hypothesis
4. gathering evidence/ testing the hypothesis
5. building a theory
6. publishing results
Hypothesis
The Predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables
Operational Definition
Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. For example "hunger" might be defined as "the number of hours of food deprivation"
Theory
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations
Stimulus
Any physical energy sensed by an organism
Introspection
To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations.
Structuralism
The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
Functionalism
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people help people adapt to their environments
Natural Selection
Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions
Behaviorism
The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior
Response
Any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior
Cognitive Behaviorism
An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior
Gesalt Psychology
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception, in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Unconscious
Contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to the person
Repression
The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
Psychoanalysis
A freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconcious conflicts
Neo-Freudian
A psychologist who accepts the broad features of Freud's theory but has revised the theory to fit his or her own concepts
Psychodyanmic Theory
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
Humanism
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideas
-free will
-self-esteem
-spiritual needs/concerns
-love/others
-self actualization
Determinism
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices, and actions if all such causes were known
Free Will
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
Self-actualization
the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
Biological perspective
The attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles
Psychological Perspective
The traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occuring at the level of the individual
Positive Psychology
The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
Sociocultural perspective
The focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals
Cultural Relativity
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
Social Norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group
Psychologist
A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
Clinical Psychologist
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
Counseling Psychologist
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances
Psychiatrist
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders (can prescribe medication)
Psychoanalyst
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis (hypnosis.. i think)
Counselor
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not invovling serious mental disorder; for ex. marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
Psychiactric social worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
Experiment
A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about cause and effect.
Experimental Subjects
HUMANS (ALSO REFERRED TO AS PARTICIPANTS) OR ANIMALS WHOSE BEHAVIOR IS INVESTIGATED IN AN EXPERIMENT
Variable
Any condition that changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary
Independent Variable
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The valuesthat this variable takes are chosen by the experiment. Suspected causes for differences in behavior
Dependent Variable
Measure the results of the experiment. that is, they reveal the effects that independent variables have on behavior. (test scores?)
Extraneous Variables
conditions researchers wish to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment.
Experimental Group
in a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition
Control Group
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable
Random Assignment
the use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups
Statistical Significance
Experimental results that would rarely occur by chance alone
Research Participants Bias
Changes in behavior of research participants caused by the unintended influence of their own expectations
Placebo effect
changes in behavior due to participants' expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect
Placebo
An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion
Single-blind experiment
An arrangement in which participants remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group
Researchers bias
Changes in participants' behavior caused by unintended influence of researchers actions
Self-fufilling prophecy
a prediction that prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true
Double-blind experiment
An arrangement in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of whether participants are in the experimental group or the control group, uncluding who might have been administered a drug or a placebo
Experimental method
investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation
naturalistic method
observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
Observer effect
Changes in an organism's behavior brought about by awareness of being observed
Observer Bias
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his/her expectations
Anthropomorphic Error
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior
Observation Record
A detailed summary of observed events or a video tape of observed behavior
Correlation
The existence of a consistent, systematic realtionship between two events, measures, or variables
Correlational Study
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
Coefficient of Correlation
A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.
C of C of 0 means no relationship!
C of C outside of -1.0 or +1.0 = ERROR!
Positive Correlation
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in the other (or decreases correspone with decreases
Negative Correlation
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other
Causation
The act of causing some effect
Case study
an in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person (something happened to one person and there is no way to study it through many occurences.. rare)
Natural Clinical Test
An accident or other natural event that allows the gathering of data on a psychological phenomenon of interest
Survey method
the use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
Representative sample
a small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
Population
An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category (ex. all college students)
Basic Goals of Psych
1. Describe
2. Understand
3. Predict
4. Control
Wilhelm Wundt
Father of psych, from Germany, 1879, studied concious experience... eventually called "experimental self-observation", looking in.. introspective, stimulus
Edward Titchener
-broke thinking down into basic parts, called the structure of thinking
- structuralism
William James
-thought structuralism was too narrow in focus
-developed functionalism
-functionalists wanted to find out how the mind, perception, habits, and emotions help us adapt and survive
J.B. Watson
Behaviorism
-watson said psychology is to be empirical
-believed we learn or develop our behavior through conditioning
-conditioning
*stimulus:physical energy, anything that causes a resoponse
*Respose:any reaction to stimuli
*Conditioning: process of learning by association/experience
*learning: relatively permanent change due to conditioning
Gesalt Phych
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Sigmund Freud
ideas: psychoanalytical/ psychodynamic
Freud Believed:
*nothing is by chance
*everything is connected somehow
*early impacts later
*unconcious mind is most significant
3 Part of Personality according to Freud
-Id: totally unconcious, instincts, PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
-Ego: assists in balanced choices, REALITY PRICIPLE
Superego: right+wrong, must do right, MORALITY PRINCIPLE
Development Psychology
child psych
Learning
conditioning, memory
Personality
Individual differences, motivation
Sensation and Perception
Processing sensory info
Biopsychology
Brain and nervous system
Social Psych
attitudes, group, leadership
Comparative Psych
animal behavior