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Exam #1

Mort 160 Orientation to Funeral Service Exam #1 Flash Cards
STUDY
PLAY
FUNERAL SERVICE EDUCATION
Involves 3 components:

Formal college-level education

• Successful completion of state or national board exam

• Period of on-the-job training
DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE
Certificate in Mortuary Science at Cypress College 50 semester units (NO LONGER OFFERED)
ASSOCIATE DEGREE
Usually equivalent to 60 semester units

Associates in Science - Mortuary Science at Cypress College = 75 Semester Units
BACCALAUREATE DEGREE
Usually equivalent to 120 semester units

Bachelor of Science in Funeral Service at University of Central Oklahoma 124 semester units
(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

DEVELOPMENT OF STATE BOARDS
• Most states have a state board of funeral directors and embalmers

• In California, DCA:CFB (Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Cemetery & Funeral Bureau)

Quality education is necessary for those entering funeral service - responsibility of Mortuary Science schools, the ICFSEB & ABFSE
(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

ABFSE
AMERICAN BOARD OF FUNERAL SERVICE EDUCATION

Accreditation
Curriculum oversight
Scholarship
National Board Exam Liaison

ONLY agency recognized by the U.S. Dept. of Education to accredit funeral service education - requires students to receive an education that includes:

Public Health/Technical
Business/Management
Legal/Ethics
Social Science

www.abfse.org
(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

ICFSEB
THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF FUNERAL SERVICE EXAMINING BOARDS

NOT-FOR-PROFIT voluntary association providing examination services; develops and administers the NATIONAL BOARD EXAM to provide state licensing boards & bureaus with national evaluation of applicant for licensure - develops, administers & provides score reporting to state licensure boards (used in 49 states except CA & District of Columbia)

www.theconferenceonline.org
(ABFSE College and University Council:)

UMSEA
UNIVERSITY MORTUARY SCIENCE EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION

Public schools of mortuary science
(ABFSE College and University Council:)

NACMS
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES OF MORTUARY SCIENCE

Private schools of mortuary science
INTEREST GROUPS
NFDA - (LARGEST ASSOCIATION))* www.nfda.org
National Funeral Directors Association

OGRR* - www.ogr.org
International Order of the Golden Rule

NSM (RENAMED SIFH))* - www.selectedfuneralhomes.org
Selected Independent Funeral Homes

NFDMAA* - www.nfdma.com
National Funeral Directors & Morticians Association

JFDAA* - www.jfda.org
Jewish Funeral Directors of America
(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

APPRENTICE/INTERN/RESIDENT TRAINEE
A person engaged in learning the practice of funeral directing and/or embalming under instruction,direction, or personal supervision of a duly licensed funeral director and/or embalmer

HS GRAD
(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

EMBALMER
A person, properly licensed, who disinfects, preserves, or
restores a dead human body

HS GRAD
Mortuary College
(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

FUNERAL DIRECTOR
A person properly licensed, engaged in, or conducting, or holding himself/herself out as being engaged in:

• preparing, other than by embalming, for the burial or disposition of dead human bodies; and/or
• maintaining or operating a funeral establishment for the preparation and disposition, or for the care of dead human bodies

AA/AS or Equivalent
Licensing laws: PUBLIC INTEREST/SCRUTINY of Licensed Professional
• Professionalism

• Continuing Education
(Funeral Service Associations:)

BACKGROUND
Divided into professional & trade
(Funeral Service Associations:)

OCCUPATIONAL ORGANIZATION
Major function is to create a definite and positive image of the occupation for its members and the public
(Funeral Service Associations:)

SOCIOCULTURAL MOVEMENTS
• The general public health movement - to examine and license those who disposed of the dead

• The Specific movement for cremation - wanted funeral reform
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

AMONG FUNERAL DIRECTORS
Development of strong local, state & national-level occupation groups
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

ORIGINS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATION GROUPS
• Undertakers Mutual Protective Association of Philadelphia: established "black book" to register
objectionable & delinquent customers

• Chicago Undertakers Association: opened Illinois School of Embalming

ALLEN DURFEE: 1ST PRESIDENT of MFDA, ARRANGED 1st STATE CONVENTION

MICHIGAN FUNERAL DIRECTORS ASSOCIATION: protected professional practice by recognizing only legitimate undertakers
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL FUNERAL DIRECTORS ASSOCIATION
Developed the body, name and relationship with manufacturers
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

PRESSURES INTERESTS AND MOTIVES
• Needed spokesman/representatives to transact business

• Uniform/standard practice

• Professionalism
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY LEADERSHIP
Well-to-do, well-educated middle-class men
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

CODE OF ETHICS
Needed for colleagueship/cohesion
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

COMMUNICATION WITHIN TRADE
• Drummers/salesman - first agents of communication

• Trade papers - articles on embalming, funerals, professionalism

• Trade magazines - formal medium of communication
(19th Century Associational Developments:)

GROWTH, PROBLEMS AND CHANGE
• Relationships with associations

• Transporting the dead

• Mortuary education

• Communication within occupation
(Traces of professionalism @ The turn of The Century:)

SOCIAL AND LEGAL PRESSURES
State licensing laws: lack of laws, no general definition of promotional practices, trade restraint
(Traces of professionalism @ The turn of The Century:)

ASSOCIATIONAL GROUPS
NFDA / National Funderal Directors Associationn*: LARGEST funeral service association (www.nfda.org)

• NSM / Natonal Selected Morticians: now SELECTED INDEPENDANT FUNERAL HOMES (SIFH))*, develops sound business practices (www.sifh.org)

• State funeral directors associations (FDAs): represent practitioners in the field & advocate on their behalf (www.cafda.org)

OGR / Order of The Golden Rulee*: promotional & advertising services (www.ogr.org)

JFDA / Jewish Funeral Directors Associationn*: promotes Jewish funeral practices (www.jfda.org)

• NFFS / National Foundation of Funeral Service: now FUNERAL SERVICE FOUNDATION (FSF))*; professional development (www.funeralservicefoundation.org)

• CMA / Casket Manufacturers Assocation: now CASKET & FUNERAL SUPPLY ASSOCIATION (CFSA))*, industry exhibits (www.cfsaa.org)
ASSOCATIONAL GROUPS cont'd
APFSP / Academy of Professional Funeral Service Practice: instituted the voluntary Certified Funeral Service Practitioner program (CFSPP*, www.apfsp.org)

CANA / Cremation Association of North Americaa*: international organization and recognized national authority for all information, education, products, services and support for cremation (www.cremationassociationwe.org)

ICCFA / International Cemetery, Cremation & Funeral Assocationn*: formerly known as American Cemetery Association (ACA), the only international trade association representing all segments of the cemetery, funeral service, cremation and memorialization profession (www.iccfa.com)

NFDMA / National Funeral Directors & Morticians Association: formerly known as Independent National Funeral Directors Association (INFDA); strictly African-American membershipp* (www.nfdma.com)

EPSILON-NU-DELTA Mortuary Fraternityy*: A non-profit organization for members of the mortuary profession @ Worsham College of Mortuary Science, Chicago, Illinois (www.epsilonnudelta.org)
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

BASIC RIGHTS
• Constitute the core of any social institution
• Every man has a right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness"
• Equality before the law
• Common beliefs
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

COMMON BELIEFS
• Select their place of residence
• Their mates
• Their occupations
• Make the most of their own critical life decisions
• Common school education (at public expense)
• Right to a decent burial
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

IMPORTANCE OF LAWS, CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, FASHIONS
Dead merit personal funeral services:
• Embalming
• Viewing
• Waiting period between death and disposition
• Casket
• Service
• Disposition - burial
• Services of the funeral director

American mortuary beliefs descends from humanitarianism

Early Christian Behavior

Early civilizations (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Christian & Hebrew, Scandinavian)
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

COMPOSITION OF WESTERN CULTURE TODAY
• Greek aesthetics and philosophy
• Roman law and administrative genius
• Ancient Teutonic vigor
• Judeo-Christian tradition
• Hebrew religious and ethical concepts
(Medical Embalmers and The Rise of English Undertakers [1400s])

EMBALMING ENHANCED THE GROWTH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
Discovery of the venous system:
• Leonardo da Vinci

Vascular Embalming:
• William Harvey

Injection Practices
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Role of The Barber-Surgeons:)

PRACTICE OF BLOODLETTING
Reducing the quantity of blood in the body
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Role of The Barber-Surgeons:)

PRACTICE OF EMBALMING
Reserved to the barber-surgeons (medical practitioners)
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Introduction of The Funeral Undertaker:)

FUNCTIONS
• Directed the funeral
• Provided the funeral merchandise
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Introduction of The Funeral Undertaker:)

LIMITATIONS
• Did not embalm
• Did not truly "direct" the funeral
(Early Mortuary Behavior:)

FEUDAL FUNERALS
• Broke (bankrupt) the estate
• Peak of ostentation
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Coffins and Funeral Goods:)

INTRODUCTION OF MANY CRAFTSMEN INTO FUNERAL UNDERTAKING
• Carpenters
• Cabinet Makers
• Livery Stable owners
• Furniture makers
(Early Mortuary Behavior:)

RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLERGY AND THE FUNERAL UNDERTAKER
• Clergy directed the funeral using the funeral director only to assist
• Opposed to ostentation and inequality in burials
(Early Mortuary Behavior: Burial and Sanitary Reform)

EDWIN CHADWICK AND THE POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS
Originated the process of death registrationn*; based primarily on work investigating deplorable conditions of English cemetery workers

• Influence of Chadwick's report on intramural interments and burial practices: Recommended a medical officer certify death (Death Certificate) before buriall* (within calendar 8 days); believed municipal officer should be responsible for certifying all deaths and seeing to the proper disposal of the dead
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

AMERICAN COLONIAL FUNERAL BEHAVIOR: ORIGIN OF CUSTOMS
English beliefs, institutions, skills, arts and crafts
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's])

AMERICAN COLONIAL FUNERAL BEHAVIOR: FRAMEWORK FOR FUNERAL PRACTICES
Virginia Colony - primarily a commercial venture:
• Massachusetts Bay Colony - primarily religious

Rise of Protestantism - Puritans are a group of protestants:
• Hard work = avenue of salvation
• Theology and philosophy = sermons of hell-fire and damnation
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

BURIAL PRACTICES - THE GRAVE AS FAMILIAR AS THE CRADLE
Models of simplicity and dignity in earliest New England - error to say prayers over the dead, sermons after the burial

Increase in social character of mourning - part of the English feudal funeral;
• Use of gifts - rings, scarves, gloves, books
• increased burden on colonial widow - social status

Funeral procession - the procession of vehicles from the place of the funeral to the place of disposition - on foot, with bearers carrying coffin on bier, pall

Social change in later colonial period - influence of revolutions - breakdown of Puritan controls
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: LIMITATIONS OF THE TERM "FUNERAL DIRECTING"
Began as part of other occupations; funeral directing in the modern sense was born in America during the 19th century
• Provisions of a set of tasks for the care and disposal of the dead
• A personal service which operates as a business enterprise
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: TRADESMAN UNDERTAKER
Furnished the funeral paraphernalia of mourning

Introduction of many craftsmen into the field of undertaking:
• Furniture maker
• Cabinet maker
• Carpenter

Importance increased as cities grew and material resources of the townspeople increased - livery, stable (joined furnishing undertaking)
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: EARLIER PERFORMERS OF THE PERSONAL SERVICE
• Nurses - family nurse prepared the dead for burial
• Midwives - shared with the nurse
• Specific layers out of the dead - specialty developed by the end of the 18th century
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES
Role of the church sexton (one who is in charge of the cemetery; the caretaker of a church; also racketeer):

• Tolling of the bell (indicated status, age, etc.) and digging of the grave
• Laying out the body
• Being in attendance
• Directing the procession
• Furnishing the merchandise
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: MUNICIPAL OFFICERS
• Inviter to funerals - called on those expected to attend (mostly men)
• Town undertakers - town health officials
(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: SPECIFIC UNDERTAKING PROCEDURES FROM DEATH TO BURIAL
Family called friend to arrange:
• Carpenter/cabinet-maker for coffin
• Coffin brought to house
• Body prepared, dressed, casketed

Farm wagon was hearse
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

FIRST RESPONSE TO DEATH
Family reaction and behavior
• Unfiltered emotional release

Funeral mood of gloom
• Funeral mood of formality
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

@ THE HOME: PROCEDURES IN THE CITIES
Most deaths occurred at home (typically before the age of 21)

The undertaker relieved the families of the responsibility of preparing the body

Preparation procedures
• Refrigeration
• Embalming (1st offered by medical practitioners returning from war)
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

@ THE HOME: PROCEDURES IN RURAL AREAS
Usually no undertakers available

Preparation procedures:
• Washed, dressed, laid out in the parlor

Shared responsibilities:
• Relatives, neighbors and friends
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

INFLUENCE OF THE INTRODUCTION OF EMBALMING
• If undertaker offered embalming, it was done at the home

• Portable cooling board was embalming table
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

FUNERAL ARRANGEMENTS
Notification of relatives

Casket selection
• Use of catalogue
• Types available (wood/metal in city, wood in rural)
• Delivery problems

Other arrangements
• Death certificate, burial permit, cemetery permission
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL: CITY
Role of the undertaker:
• Sent out invitations and newspaper notices

Locations for the funeral:
• Home of the deceased
• Church

Participants:
• Fraternal orders
• Clergy

Methods - undertaker directs (at instruction of clergy)
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL: RURAL
Role of the undertaker (usually done by family)
• Limited

Locations
• Home

Participants
• Family

Methods - clergy directed
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL PROCESSION AND BURIAL: FORMATION OF CORTEGE (FUNERAL PROCESSION)
• Clergymen
• Flower carriage
• Pallbearers
• Hearse (farm wagon)
• Immediate family and relatives
• Friends
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL PROCESSION AND BURIAL: PROCEDURE @ GRAVESIDE
• Undertaker relinquished control to sexton
• Clergy lead family to grave
• Undertaker lead pallbearers
• Cemetery assistants filled grave after family left
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

LATE 19TH CENTURY MOURNING SYMBOLS
Personal dress - black garments

Appearance of the home - door badges

Timetable of mourning behavior
Widow dressed in black for two years - life
Widower dressed in black for one year (gray the second year)

Stationery emblems for funeral participants
For widow - white or gray with black border (border size = mourning state)
• Colored crests (used black wax) and perfume prohibited

Social emblems for funeral participants
• Funeral sash, linen scarf, gloves, ribbons and bandages

Funeral music
• Church bells and brass band
(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

ATTITUDE CHANGE FROM GLOOMY TO BEAUTY - PERSONAL DRESS
More aesthetic luxury in caskets

Introduction of the use of flowers (originally associated with pagan ritual)
• Design in floral funeral pieces - Wreath, cross, harp, star, heart
• Use of artificial flowers
(DCA:CFB)

Embalmer: Licensing Requirements
To be eligible for licensure as an embalmer (CA), you must meet the following requirements:

Be 18 or older

Committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensuree* under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code

• Completed 2 year apprenticeshipp* under a licensed embalmer in CA in a funeral establishment approved for apprentices by bureau

• Assisted in embalming no fewer than 100 human remains

Graduated from Mortuary Science programm* approved by bureau and accredited by ABFSE

• Pass NBE (National Board Exam))* administered by the ICFSEB
(DCA:CFB)

Embalmer: Application Checklist
• Completed and signed your application; $150.00 application fee

• Requested "official transcripts""* from the mortuary science program

• Requested "official certified copies" of NBE (sciences section) score from ICFSEB

• Included "Request for Live Scan Service" form / provided information about previously submitted fingerprints to DCA:CFB
(DCA:CFB)

Funeral Director: Licensing Requirements
To be eligible to apply for licensure as a funeral director (CA), you must meet the following requirements:

18 or older

Associate in Arts or Associate in Science degreee*, or equivalent.

• Have committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensuree* under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code.
(DCA:CFB)

Funeral Director: Licensing Submittal
To apply for licensure as a funeral director, submit the following:

Completed application form + filing fee of $100

• May choose to submit licensing fee the same time as examination fee or wait until examination results have been received: $200.00 licensing fee

Official Transcripts sent directly from educational institution(s) to DCA:CFB

Copy of request for Live Scan service form verifying fingerprints have been scanned and all applicable fees paid
(DCA:CFB)

Apprentice Embalmer: Certificate of Registration
To be eligible for registration as an apprentice embalmer, you must meet the following requirements:

Be 18 or older

Be a high school graduate (or equivalent)

Committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensuree* under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code.

• Provide one of the following:
(1) Proof showing completion of a high school course

(2) Evidence you have been licensed and have practiced as an embalmer for a minimum of 3 years within 7 years preceding application in any other state or country and that license has never been suspended or revoked for unethical conduct

(3) Graduation from a mortuary science program approved by bureau and accredited by ABFSE, or equivalent determined by bureau; furnished official transcripts from program
(DCA:CFB)

Apprentice Embalmer: Application Checklist
• Completed and signed application for submission and enclosed the $60.00 application fee

Managing funeral director and supervising embalmer signed application

• If applicable, requested "official transcripts" from high schooll* attended

• Included "Request for Live Scan Service" form / provided information about previously submitted fingerprints to DCA:CFB

• Licensed funeral establishment has current "Approval to Train an Apprentice Embalmer" form on file
Video: The Facts of Death
• 2.2 Million people die each year; 86% of them have some type of funeral service

• Average funeral costs: $5000-7000 (same as childbirth)

• 23,000 Funeral homes and 45,500 funeral directors in the U.S.

• 84% of funeral homes are family owned; been in operation over 60 years

• 2/3 people entering profession have no family ties to business

• 99% of Americans over age 30 have been to a funeral; 1/2 of those responsible for making funeral arrangements

• 7 million Americans have their funerals pre-arranged; all over the age 55

• 6% cremated in 1973; 20% in 1993; 40% by 2013

• 100,000 cemeteries in the U.S.; 9000 still active

• 80% Americans choose earth burial; 60% now?

• Average 17 year old has seen 17,000 deaths in media but never attended funeral
Video: The Undertaking
• Lynch & Sons; largest family owned/operated funeral home; 11,000 square feet

• Most people have never viewed a cremation