ELA MILESTONES Review

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Terms in this set (...)

To infer
to come to a reasonable conclusion based on evidence found in the text
Explicit idea
fully stated or revealed by the writer - the author tells the reader exactly what they need to know
Theme
the lesson or message of a literary text
Plot
The series of events that form a story in a specific order
Resolution
The solution to the problem or the end of the main dramatic conflict in a story
Allusion
an indirect reference to something
Allusion
when a writer refers to something without mentioning it explicitly
Literal
the actual meaning of a word or phrase
Personification
when a writer describes an object as if it were a person
Simile
a comparison using like or as or than
Metaphor
a direct comparison that states one thing IS another. It isn't meant to be literal, but descriptive.
Alliteration
The use of the same sound to start several words in a row
Point of View
the perspective from which a story is told (depends on who the narrator is and how much he or she knows)
Genre
a category of passages, such as fiction and nonfiction. Each has a particular form, style, and content.
Summary
an overview of a text that captures the main points but does not give all of the details and does not include opinions
Organization
the way in which a piece of writing is structured - each sentence, paragraph, or chapter fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of ideas
Author's purpose
the author's intention for his or her piece - to persuade, inform, explain, or entertain
Author's point of view
the opinion of the author
Evidence
something that proves or demonstrates the truth of something else
Fact
a statement that can be proven
Opinion
a statement that cannot be proven because it states a writer's belief or judgment about something
Chronological order
the order in which a series of events happened - in order of time from beginning to end
Cause and effect
a relationship where one thing causes another thing to happen
Informational/explanatory texts
a form of writing that informs the reader or explains something
Introduction
the beginning of a piece of writing - lets the readers know what they will be reading about and set up the main idea of the writing
Organization
the way in which a piece of writing is structured - the order should make sense
Transition
a word, phrase, or clause that links one idea to the next
Conclusion
the end of a piece of writing - sums up the main idea of the writing and provides and overall message for the reader
Formatting
the way in which a piece of writing is organized - i.e. heading, subheadings
Multimedia
a variety of mediums - pen on paper, typed essays, art, presentations, photographs, charts, videos, etc.
Writing process
prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, proofreading, publishing
Claims
ideas and opinions set forth by the author
Evidence
the reasons given to support a writer's claims
Purpose
the writer's intention for his or her piece - to persuade, inform, explain, or entertain
Audience
the people who will be reading the piece of writing
Revision
the process of editing and rewriting a piece of writing
Participle
based on a verb form that functions as an adjective within the sentence
gerund
ends in -ing and functions as a noun
participle
typically ends in -ed, -en, or -ing and functions as an adjective
Infinitive
a phrase that consists normally of the word "to" followed by a verb
Active voice
the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb
Passive voice
the subject of the sentence receives the action
Imperative verb
used to command or tell someone to take action
Interrogative verb
used when the author or speaker is asking a question
Context
words and phrases that surround another phrase and help to explain its meaning
Root
the foundation of a word
Verbal irony
an expression a person uses that means the opposite of what is said
Dramatic irony
an event or other literary element of which the reader is aware but that is unknown to the characters
Situational irony
an instance in which characters' actions have the opposite effect of what is planned
Pun
a word or phrase with more than one meaning that is used in a funny way
Connotation
an implied meaning of a word
Denotation
the exact definition of the word