20 terms

Chapter 1: Alien Encounters: Europe in the Americas

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King Philip's War
This was the 1675-6 conflict between New England colonists and Native American Groups allied under Wampanoag chief Metacom. This war was the costliest in New England history and it largely crushed the Indian capacity for resistance
joint stock company
These companies, such as the Virginia Company, provided the financial means for English colonizing ventures in the New World in the early 1600s.
Jamestown
This was the first successful English colony in the Americas--settled in 1607. However, it faced great hardships due to disease and interference from surrounding Indian tribes.
John Smith
English captain who took control of Jamestown in 1608, famously declaring that "he who shall not work shall not eat". Instrumental in relations between the Powhatan confederacy and the English due to his relationship with Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas. His work ethic and willingness to trade with the Indians saved the settlement.
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World, formed in Virginia in 1619
Pilgrims
English Separatists who drafted the Mayflower Compact and established Plymouth Plantation in 1620. They celebrated their survival with a Thanksgiving feast in 1621 with local Wampanoag Indians.
Plymouth
The first permanent English settlement in New England, established by a group of Puritan separatists known as the Pilgrims, who sailed on the Mayflower and landed near present day Cape Cod.
Mayflower Compact
A document written in 1620 by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a "civil body politic" and setting guidelines for self-government.
Squanto
An English-speaking Indian who helped the Pilgrims at Plymouth Plantation by showing them where to fish and how to cultivate corn.
Massachusetts Bay Company
This organization of influential Puritan investors in England sponsored and organized a large expedition to North America in 1629 for the express purpose of establishing an independent Puritan community, free of what they saw as the corrupting influences of the Church of England. Centered in Boston, this company administered the ___ ___ Colony during the region's early settlement.
Puritans
English religious group that sought to purify the Church of England; founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony under John Winthrop in 1630.
Great Migration
during the 1630s, religious persecution and economic hard times in England drove more than 15,000 Puritans to journey to Massachusetts.
John Winthrop
He was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. His "Model of Christian Charity" encouraged fellow Puritans to create a "city upon a hill."
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration and separation of church and state.
Anne Hutchinson
She was a Massachusetts Bay Puritan who was banished for criticizing the colony's ministers and magistrates, and for her heresy of antinomianism. She then moved to the colony of Portsmouth in Rhode Island.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in ___, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
Toleration Act
Act passed in 1649 to allow a degree of religious freedom in Maryland
William Penn
He was the Quaker proprietor of a colony that became a refuge for persecuted Quakers. He treated Indians fairly, and his well-advertised colony became the most economically successful in English North America.
Quakers
Religious group that settled in Pennsylvania and led by William Penn—believed in equality, tolerance, and religious freedom
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after Columbus's voyage in 1492.