58 terms

IB Psychology Abnormal Review

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Normality
A pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviour that conforms to a usual, typical or expected standard within a cultural context
Abnormality
A psychological condition or behaviour that differs from how most people behave and that is harmful, or which causes distress to the individual or those around them. Abnormal behaviour is behaviour that does not match society's idea of what is appropriate.
Diagnosis
A decision made based on the information regarding the patient's history and the results of the doctor's examination.
Classification
A procedure of organisation that first places a term in the general class to which it belongs and then differentiates it from all other members of that class.
DSM
A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems
ICD-10
(International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision) One of several internationally endorsed medical coding classifications list which gives a numeric code to diseases, signs and symptoms, possible complaints, abnormalities, and possible causes of injuries and diseases.
Validity of diagnosis
The extent to which the categories a diagnostic system identifies are clinically meaningful.
Reliability of diagnosis
The extent to which different diagnosticians, reach the same conclusion when they independently diagnose the same individuals.
Statistical abnormality
Abnormality can be defined as deviation from the average, where statistically common behaviour is defined as "normal" whilst statistically rare behaviour is "abnormal".
Deviation from social norms
A person's thinking or behavior is classified as 'abnormal' if it violates the unwritten rules about what is expected or 'acceptable behavior' in a particular social group.
Szasz (1960)
Argues that abnormality, especially relating to certain mental disorders, is a socially constructed concept. This construction then allows for labeling of psychological patients. Critic of the classification system utilized in diagnosis of mental disorders, based on the ethical implications associated with labeling.
Failure to function adequately
a person is considered abnormal is they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life, or if they cannot perform the basics for day-to-day life.
Deviation from ideal mental health
Deviation from characteristics required to meet Jahoda's 6 criteria for optimal living.
Jahoda (1958)
Described several characteristics that mentally healthy should possess including:
1. the ability to introspect
2. integration and balance of personality
3. self-actualisation
4. autonomy
5. ability to cope with stress and see the world as it really is
6. environmental mastery
Rosenhan & Seligman (1989)
Suggested that there are 7 criteria which can be used to determine if an individual's behaviour is abnormal (suffering; maladaptiveness; irrationality; unpredictability; vividness and unconventionality; observer discomfort; violation of moral or ideal standards).
Scheff (1966)
Argued that one of the adverse effects of labels is self-fulfilling prophecy: people may begin to act as they think they are expected to. Once told they are mentally ill, their symptoms may increase.
Morgan et al (2006)
found that in the UK, the incidence of schizophrenia is 9 times higher for afro-Caribbeans and 6 times higher for those of black African descent than for white British people-- researchers argue that the genetic differences cannot account for this and that it is more likely a diagnostic bias (self-fulfilling prophecy)
Mate Maori
ill health or strange behavior related to breaking tribal law, especially that connected with what is sacred. A New Zealand culture-bound syndrome studied by Arroll et al, 2002
Palmer and Ward (2006)
found in a content analysis of interviews of immigrants to London from Somalia, Rwanda and Iran that those who experienced trauma in their previous location are affected by difficulties in their new environment as well as memories of the old. Stigma associated w mental health and language interpretation problems limit access for certain groups
Example of confirmation bias in diagnosis
Rosenhan (1973)
The medical staff at a ward for schizophrenia was convinced that the confederates he placed in the ward were indeed schizophrenic when they were really healthy. They were admitted into the ward and their behavior was attributed to symptoms of the illness. Example, note-taking = paranoia, pacing out of boredom = nervousness and agitation, waiting outside cafeteria for lunch = oral acquisitive nature of disorder. Only schizophrenics knew the confederates were fakes.
R.D. Laing
research suggests that while diagnosis is made within the medical model, the diagnosis is more a social fact than a medical one--there are no reliable biological tests for diagnosing only guidance about classification (ie. DSM)
Caetano, 1973
study indicated that psychiatrists w clinical experience were more likely to be persuaded by information, demonstrates the labelling theory.
Labelling theory
behavior of the person being diagnosed is not the most important component of diagnosis, and in an ambiguous situation, any suggestion that the subject is or has been mentally ill will be a powerful influence on any decision
Powerlessness and depersonalization
Produced in institutions through a lack of rights, constructive activity, choice, and privacy, as well as frequent verbal and even physical abuse from attendants.
Culture bound syndrome
Sets of signs & symptoms that are common in a limited number of cultures but virtually non-existent in most other cultural groups.
CCMD-2
Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders
Levav et al (1997)
investigated the role of culture and culture bound syndromes in statistical analysis of rates of alcoholism and depression. Jewish males were much more likely to have a diagnosis of depression and less likely to have a diagnosis of alcoholism.
Culture blindness
The problem of identifying symptoms of a psychological disorder if they are not the norm in the clinician's own culture.
Hagen et al (2004)
evolutionary perspective on major depressive disorder, suggesting that it is a psychological adaptation favored by natural selection and serves 2 purposes: to signal need and to elicit help from others in the social group.
Rack (1982)
Suggested that if a member of a minority ethnic group exhibits a set of symptoms that is similar to that of a white British born patient, then they are assumed to be suffering from the same disorder, which may not actually be the case.
Swedish Twin Study (Kendler et al, 2006)
Molecular genetic research attempting to identify genes in the role of depression. Found concordance rates among monozygotic twins of .44% for females and .31% for males compared w .16% and .11% in dizygotic twins.
Symptomology
Identification of the symptoms.
Etiology
Reasons why people suffer from a disorder. Sociocultural, biological and cognitive factors that may contribute to the onset of a disorder.
Prevalence rate
Total number of people infected at one time in a population.
Lifetime prevalence
The percentage of people in a certain population who will have a given disorder at any point in their lives.
Onset age
The average age at which the disorder is likely to appear.
Anxiety disorders
A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety i.e. OCD, PTSD, phobia.
Affective disorders
Emotional disorders that are characterized by changes in mood i.e. unipolar depression, bipolar depression etc.
Eating disorders
Disorders that are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behaviour as a result of a preoccupation with weight concerns and unhealthy efforts to control weight i.e. anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa etc
Biomedical treatment
Therapies that target presumed underlying biological etiologies of psychological disorders.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Helps clients identify irrational, negative thoughts and replace them with more positive thoughts and coping behaviours.
Individual therapies
Therapy that involves the therapist working one-to-one with a client. Directive counseling, client centred therapy (Carl Rogers), psychoanalysis (Freud), dynamic therapy (Hans Strupp), behavioural therapy: behavioural modification, densensitization.
Group therapies
A type of psychotherapy in which people meet regularly to interact and help one another achieve insight into their feelings and behavior. Support system, not feeling alone, therapists and patients both gain insight into the disorders in question.
Levinson (2005)
research suggests that short alleles of a gene known as 5-HTT affect the transmission and reuptake of serotonin to increase the chances of a person suffering from depression.
Construct Validity
Degree to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure.
Predictive Validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict.
Comorbidity
The presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disorder for example alcoholism and depression.
Isolation of Variables
Especially in group therapy, there are so many variables inherent to the treatment that it is impossible to really determine which factors were the most important in an individual's improvement or lack thereof.
Double Blind Study
Random assignment of test subjects to the experimental and control groups is a critical part of any double-blind research design. The key that identifies the subjects and which group they belonged to is kept by a third party, and is not revealed to the researchers until the study is over.
Social Desirability Bias
This refers to the fact that in self-reports, people will often report inaccurately on sensitive topics in order to present themselves in the best possible light (Fisher, 1993).
Spontaneous Remission
Also called spontaneous healing or spontaneous regression, is an unexpected improvement or cure from a disorder that is not related to therapy.
Lacasse and Leo (2005)
summarize issues with the serotonin hypothesis. The central problem is a lack of evidence that an depressed person has low levels of serotonin. There is no baseline level of serotonin to measure against
Burke et al (2005)
a meta-analysis of studies connecting the hormone cortisol with depression
Aaron Beck (1976)
suggests that a cognitive triad underlies the information-processing style of depressed individuals
Cognitive triad
cluster of negative thoughts grouped into three categories: the self, the world, and the future.
Albert Ellis (1962)
focused on negative cognitive style as the basis of depression. Specifically, irrational and self-defeating beliefs affect an individual's interpretation of activating events, leading to negative emotional consequences.
Brown and Harris (1978)
provided a vulnerability model based on the interaction of vulnerability factors: losing one's mother at an early age, lack of confiding relationships, more than 3 young children at home, unemployment
Kirsch et al (2008)
showed there is at best only a small difference in efficacy between placebo and medication in the treatment of depression
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