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Chapter 19 and 20 Review Sheet
Terms in this set (35)
How did the Renaissance contribute to the Age of Exploration?
-wealth from trade leads to the search for new trade routes
-advances in learning and technology more voyages possible
What five pieces of technology contributed to exploration?
-gunpowder,caravel,astrolabe, magnetic compass,printing press
What is the purpose of gunpowder?
-ships equipped with canons
-Europeans with control of Indian Ocean for trade
What is the caravel and its purpose?
-large ships for carrying trade
-rudder making steering easier
-sails use wind to travel
What is the purpose for the astrolabe?
-used by Muslims to figure out latitude
What is the purpose for the compass?
What is the purpose for the printing press?
-exposure to different idea - geography
-improvement to cartography(map making)
Why did countries such as Portugal and Spain begin voyages of exploration? (G,G,G)
Gold- gain wealth from trade
Glory- power and prestige for country
God- spread religion (Christianity)
Why was there a need to find new routes to Asia?
Who is Vasco de Gama?
-sailing for Portugal in 1497 he completed voyage around African Coast and reaches India
Who is Ferdinand Magellan?
-in 1521 he sailed for Portugal and circumnavigated the world
Who is Christopher Columbus?
-in 1492 sailed for Spain looking for a route to Asia by sailing west
-he reached the Caribbean island and believed it was the East Indies
-his voyage opened the way for colonization of the Americas
Why was the Treaty of Tordesillas signed by Spain and Portugal?
-It was signed by Pope Alexander VI to keep the peace between Portugal and Spain Line of Dermacation: everything on west side is Spains
Ming China: Who was Zheng He?
-a Chinese Muslim admiral
-led Chinese expedition from Southeast Asia to Africa
What was the purposes of Zheng He's voyages?
-to distribute gifts of silk and silver to show the superiority of China
Why did his voyages stop in 1443?
-because Chinese scholar officials complained that voyages wasted valuable resources that could be used to defend against Barbarian attacks
Tokugawa Japan: Who held the power in feudal Tokugawa Japan?
-the Emperor is on top pf pyramid but the shogun holds the power
How did Tokugawa Ieyasu reform Japan's feudal government?
-he centralized power in Japan
-he moved daimyo to capital city to keep close each and stop fighting
-rise of large commercial buildings
What was Japan's foreign policy change in response to increase influence of Europeans in Japan?
-isolationism: keeping out of the affairs of other countries -> trade by government no visitors
Europeans in the New World: What is a conquistador?
-from Spain sent to new world to increase Spain's wealth and landholding
Who are two Conquistador and who did they conquer?
Hernando Cortez - conquered Aztecs
Franco Pizzaro - conquered Incas
Why were three reasons the conquistadors able to conquer the Aztecs and Incas?
1. superior weapons -> guns
3.allies with enemies of Aztecs and Incas
What is the Encomienda System?
-conquistadors granted land by Spain and permitted to demand labor from natives
Social Structure of Spanish Colonies: Now Diagram on Review Sheet
Why did Europeans turn to Africans for labor in the New World?
-because the Native Americans were dying because of diseases and brutal treatment (Scarcity of Labor)
-and the Africans were immune to European diseases, had farming experience and would be less likely to escape
What is the Middle Passage?
-forced voyage from Africa to the West Indies, North America and South America
Triangle Trade: Know Map on Review Sheet
What is The Encounter?
-the first contact between the Europeans and the Native Americans
What is the Columbian Exchange?
-the global transfer of food, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
What are Positive Effects of the Columbian Exchange:
-American foods including corn and potatoes are introduced to Europe
-Spread of Items such as horses, corn, potatoes and sugar around the world
-Population growth in Europe, Asia and Africa
-Exchange of ideas, art,language, technology etc. between Europe and Americas
-Growth of capitalism
What are Negative Effects of the Columbian Exchange:
-Spanish defeated the Aztec and Inca Empire
-Millions of Natives die from disease
-Enslaved Africans are sent to Americas
What is Capitalism?----------------------------------------------------->
-> Joint Stock Companies
-economic system based on private ownership and investigating resources for profits
What are Joint Stock Companies? ---------------------------------->
-investors pool wealth for common purpose and share profits
What is Mercantilism?
-countries become wealthy and powerful by
1) obtaining silver and gold
2)favorable balance of trade
What is the Relationship between mercantilism and colonization?
-The colonies give raw materials like gold and silver to the mother country and the mother country gives back manufactured goods
*colonies are benefitting mother country
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Columbian Exchange & Triangular Trade
Ch. 20 Section 3
Ch. 20 Section 4
global 9r rome
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