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Intro to Path Final
Terms in this set (58)
Gigantism is increased production of ____________ before epiphyseal closure in prepubertal children.
Gigantism is usually caused by _______ adenomas.
Gigantism causes what in the mandible?
Gigantism causes generalized ________.
_________ is excess production of thyroid hormone.
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?
Can a pituitary adenoma cause hyperthyroidism?
Radioactive iodine therapy is used to treat _______
Graves disease is caused due to activation of ________ epithelial cells by autoantibodies to the ____ receptors that mimic their action.
Thyroid storm is in patients with uncontrolled _________, especially in _______ disease.
Patients in a thyroid storm present with ________, __________, elevated temperatures and tachycardia.
Hyperparathyroidism is excess production of the _________ hormone which regulates _______ hemostasis.
_______ hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid gland tissue is abnormal, most commonly due to a ________ adenoma.
__________ hyperparathyroidism is when PTH is produced continuously in response to ____ serum calcium levels associated with chronic _______ disease.
What CF is associated with hyperparathyroidism?
kidney stones, ground-glass appearance of bones, and peptic ulcers
Parathyroid hormone is located?
Adrenal on top of kidney
Hypercortisolism, also called _______ syndrome is over function of the _______ gland.
Hypercortisolism is most commonly due to ___________ therapy, or adrenal/pituitary gland tumors.
Addison's Disease is the _____________ of the adrenal gland. It's also called ___________ or Adrenocortical Insufficiency.
Primary hypoadrenocorticism is when the ________ cortex is not functioning; secondary hypoadrenocorticism is when the _________ is not functioning.
What are some causes of Addison's disease?
autoimmune destruction, infections, metastatic tumors
Hyperpigmentation of skin, intramurally diffuse or patchy brown pigmentation of oral mucosa are CF's of ?
Diabetes Mellitus is a common disorder of _________ metabolism due to either decreased production of ________ or tissue resistance to the effects of insulin, resulting in ___________.
What is Type I diabetes caused by?
autoimmune destruction of islets of Langerhans
Type II diabetes have _______ resistance.
CF's of diabetes mellitus
glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
Atherosclerosis, retinal disfunction, periodontal disease, poor circulation are causes of what disease?
Urticaria is a skin lesion also known as ________ that is caused by _____________ involving immunoglobulin E.
humoral (type 1) hypersensitivity
Urticaria is histamine mediated, which is a vaso________.
Acne Vulgaris is more severe in _____, lesions begin at _______, involving the face. The _______ androgen levels associated with puberty cause an increased size and secretory activity of _______ glands. Increased ______ formation in the hair follicles blocks drainage of _______.
Psoriasis is a common skin disease that is characterized by chronic _______ and circumscribed scaling pales and plaques. Its an inflammation of skin on ______ and _______
Verruca Vulgaris is also known as the common _______. It's caused by type __ HPV.
Condyloma acuminatum is an _____ that is most common in the country. It's caused by _____ in the anogenital region.
Solar keratosis is caused by chronic ______ irradiation (sun.) Grossly a solar keratosis is a flat, _______ demarcated rough, ______, scaly area that can progress into ____________.
squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous carcinoma of the skin is a common lesion. The most important cause is _______ ______ _________. Metastases are _____.
chronic solar irradiation
Basal cell carcinoma is a sluggishly invasive, ___________ skin tumor. It is the _____ common cancer affecting humans. The cause of BCC are _____ to those of _______ ______ ________ of the skin and also is caused by chronic solar irradiation. BCC is most frequent on the ______, ______, ________, ________, ________, _______, and upper lip. BCC has a _____ with depressed center.
squamous cell carcinoma
nose, cheeks, forehead, temples, eyelids, ears
Hemangiomas of the skin are proliferation of _____ _________. These are considered to be _________ (non progressive). They are very common and either present _______ or appear shortly after. Most hemangiomas resolve _________.
Nevi, also called _________ nevi, pigmented nevi, or ________. __________ originate from the neural crest. Nevi may be _______ or _________. __________ nevi are the most common skin tumors.
acquired or congenital
Malignant Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm composed of melanocytes and arises in the _______. This is the __ most common cancer. It's caused by acute ___________ (sun burns). There are two growth phases, ________ (not a tumor) and _________ (produces tumor). Radial produce enlarge brown patches with _______ margins. Vertical eventually produces a ______ malignant melanoma. There is a __ year survival rate of ____%
Degenerative Joint Disease ,also known as ________, is a progressive noninflammatory deterioration of the joints. The basic causes of DJD is the mechanical _______ and ________ imposed on joints by weight bearing and motion. DJD gets worse with ______. Predisposing causes include ______, bad posture, and musculoskeletal or neuromuscular _________.
wear and tear
DJD is present in almost everyone over the age of _____ but significant symptoms occur in a _______ of persons, and these symptoms occur _______ like mild stiffness and aching pain in and around the affected joints.
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of ______ cause, characterized by chronic ______ which may lead to severe and disabling joint deformities. The most cases begin between the ages of _____ and _____. RA is probably an _________ disease occurring in a genetically susceptible person and triggered by an _________ factor.
20 - 50
RA is typically ________ and any of or all the diarthroidal joints may be involved, often in a _______ pattern. The proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the _______ are frequently involved. Joint lesions progress from chronic ______ to destruction of articular cartlages and final ______ (fusion) of the involved joints.
The involved joints of RA are _____, _____, and ________. It's accompanied by _______ symptoms but ___________ therapy usually prevents severe crippling.
painful, stiff, and swollen
Gout is an inborn error of ______ metabolism characterized by _________ and deposition of needle-like crystals of monosodium ____ in various tissues. The hyperuricemia is caused by impaired _______ excretion of uric acid. Monosodium urate deposits in gout are most common in _______ ______ and joint capsules. The major clinical feature is _______ attacks of acute arthritis.
Mongolism, also called _______ syndrome, is one of the most common causes of _______ deficiency in young children. It is caused by abnormalities of chromosome ___, and have a total of ____ chromosomes.
The major clinical features of mongolsim are severe mental deficiency ( IQ of _____ to ____), retarded ________ development, short stature with short limbs, brachycephaly, a flat face with wide set eyes, and a short nose with a _____ bridge.
Cerebral Palsy is not a single _____ but a _________ group of conditions with ______ damage occurring in utero, at birth, or in the neonatal period. It is the ______ single cause of _______ in children. The most frequent cause is ______.
Cerebrovascular accidents, also called ______, including all lesions of the brain induced by local _______ disturbances, rank _____ causing death in the U.S and causes about ____ of all deaths in the U.S. Of the various types of cerebrovascular accidents, infarcts of the _____ are most frequent, constituting about ____% of the total. The usual cause of infarcts of the brain is _________ arteriosclerosis.
Cerebral Arteriosclerosis is usually found in the ______ vessels at the base of the brain after age ____. It's severity _________ with age and is roughly correlated with the degree of_________ in other muscular arteries. Cerebral infarcts are usually caused by a combination of several cerebral arteriosclerosis and an _____ event of _______ or cerebral _________.
Cerebral infarcts are characterized by ________ necrosis. Clinical features of an infarct of the brain depend on the _____ and _________. The clinical onset is usually relatively _________. The immediate mortality rate depends on size and location also averaging ____% deaths which are very sudden and occurs in __ to ____ days after onset.
size and location
Spontaneous hemorrhage into the brain ( ________ hemorrhage) is a common and fatal disease and constitutes about ____% of cerebrovascular accidents. The cause of cerebral hemorrhage is rupture of an _________ artery. The underlying cause is _______ in over 90% of cases.
Metastatic tumors of the brain are more common than ________ tumors of the ________. Metastases to the brain are _________.
Central Nervous System
Multiple Sclerosis is an acute or chronic, usually _______ disease involving chiefly the _____ mater of the CNS and characterized anatomically by the development at varying intervals of time of multiple foci of _________ in the brain and spinal cord.
MS is characterized clinically by the development of multiple _________ abnormalities, corresponding to the multiple plaques, and by the occurrence of ______ and _________.
Parkinson's Disease, also called _____ ______, is a degenerative disease of the ________ motor system and is characterized clinically by ______ and _______. It's cause is ________. The clinical course of PD is _______ progressive.
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