long bones include all limb bones except the _________, ________, and ________.
the organic part of the matrix of bone
layers of bony matrix synthesized by osteoblasts during bone growth and maintenance.
Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?
hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.
2, 1, 5, 4, 3
Label in order steps 1 through 5 of endochondral ossification. -calcification of cartilage in the center of the diaphysis -formation of bone collar around the diaphysis of the hyaline model -ossification of the epiphysis -formation of the medullary cavity as ossification continues -invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation
caused by tearing of blood vessels in and around fracture site
activity of fibroblasts and osteoblasts creates an overgrown splint around the fracture site
bony callus formation
trabeculae invade callus and begin to replace fibrous tissue
excess bony material is removed from the external and internal surfaces of the diaphysis
arthritis happens because. . .
TRUE or FALSE: blood cells form only in bone marrow cavities.
TRUE or FALSE: newborns have energy stored in their bones.
what is lacking from the diaphysis of an adult long bone?
the periosteum is composed of. . .
the _________ layer is where bone is made.
cancer commonly ends up in bone because of bone's __________.
keeps periosteum attached.
bone remodeling occurs when you are _________ and when your bones are ________.
contains major blood vessels and nerves
connects from inside to out
volkman's canal is always ___________ to the central canal
the _________ wraps around each trabeculae piece.
skeletal cartilage is surrounded by the __________.
articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal
list 4 types of hyaline cartilage.
fibrocartilage is composed of ___________ fibers.
the periosteum is composed of what type of connective tissue?
nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via _________ _________.
heads of the femur and humerus
where can red marrow cavities be found in adults?
___________ line along lines of stress.
intramembranous ossification is also known as ___ _____, which means "from new."
what forms the holes of woven bone?
growth is completed
cartilage remains in the epiphyseal plate until. . .
what happens during proliferation?
what happens during hypertrophic?
what gland controls growth hormone?
unmineralized band of matrix between true bone and active osteoblasts.
the abrupt transition zone between the osteoid seam and the older mineralized bone.
a bone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed upon it.
which stimulus--PTH or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton--is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels?