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patella, tarsals and carpals

long bones include all limb bones except the _________, ________, and ________.


the organic part of the matrix of bone


layers of bony matrix synthesized by osteoblasts during bone growth and maintenance.


Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?

hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling

The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.

2, 1, 5, 4, 3

Label in order steps 1 through 5 of endochondral ossification.
-calcification of cartilage in the center of the diaphysis
-formation of bone collar around the diaphysis of the hyaline model
-ossification of the epiphysis
-formation of the medullary cavity as ossification continues
-invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation

hematoma formation

caused by tearing of blood vessels in and around fracture site

fibrocartilage callus

activity of fibroblasts and osteoblasts creates an overgrown splint around the fracture site

bony callus formation

trabeculae invade callus and begin to replace fibrous tissue

bone remodeling

excess bony material is removed from the external and internal surfaces of the diaphysis

cartilage calcifies

arthritis happens because. . .


TRUE or FALSE: blood cells form only in bone marrow cavities.


TRUE or FALSE: newborns have energy stored in their bones.

spongy bone

what is lacking from the diaphysis of an adult long bone?

connective tissue

the periosteum is composed of. . .


the _________ layer is where bone is made.


cancer commonly ends up in bone because of bone's __________.

Sharpey's fibers

keeps periosteum attached.

growing; stressed

bone remodeling occurs when you are _________ and when your bones are ________.

haversian canal

contains major blood vessels and nerves

volkman's canal

connects from inside to out


volkman's canal is always ___________ to the central canal


the _________ wraps around each trabeculae piece.


skeletal cartilage is surrounded by the __________.

articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal

list 4 types of hyaline cartilage.


fibrocartilage is composed of ___________ fibers.

dense irregular

the periosteum is composed of what type of connective tissue?

nutrient foramina

nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via _________ _________.

heads of the femur and humerus

where can red marrow cavities be found in adults?


___________ line along lines of stress.

de novo

intramembranous ossification is also known as ___ _____, which means "from new."


what forms the holes of woven bone?

growth is completed

cartilage remains in the epiphyseal plate until. . .

chondrocytes grow

what happens during proliferation?

get big

what happens during hypertrophic?


what gland controls growth hormone?

osteoid seam

unmineralized band of matrix between true bone and active osteoblasts.

calcification front

the abrupt transition zone between the osteoid seam and the older mineralized bone.

wolff's law

a bone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed upon it.


which stimulus--PTH or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton--is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels?

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