Intrapersonal communication
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Terms in this set (79)
Speaker:A person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message.
Message:The information conveyed by the speaker to the audience. Messages can be verbal or nonverbal
Audience: The complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses
Channel:The means by which the message is conveyed
Noise:Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated. Noise may be external or internal.
Feedback:The verbal and nonverbal signals the audience gives the speaker.
Context:The environment or situation in which a speech occurs.
Image: Model of the public speaking process
cognitive restructuringa process that builds confidence because it replaces negative thoughts with positive thoughts called affirmationsAffirmationspositive, motivating statements.systematic desensitizationa technique for reducing anxiety that involves teaching your body to feel calm and relaxed rather than fearful during your speechescommunication apprehensionOur nervousness before a speechtrait anxietyApprehension about communicating with others in any situation.state or situational anxietyApprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation.Why listen to others?When we listen to others, we confirm their humanity, presence, and worth. simply the process of giving thoughtful attention to another person's words and understanding what you hearconfirmTo recognize, acknowledge, and express value for another person.HearingVibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the impulses then sent to the brain.ListeningProcess of giving thoughtful attention to another person's words and understanding what you hear.Why we sometimes fail to listen?listener interference, speaker interference (Information, language), and an inability to get beyond differencesInterferenceanything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message. Interference can be external to the listenerlistenable speechconsiderate and delivered in an oral styleConsiderate speechSpeech that eases the audience's burden of processing information.Choosing your speech topicThe Classroom Setting, Matching your interests to a speaking assignment, Brainstorming and Narrowing Your TopicBrainstormingProcess of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevanceBrainstorming examplesfree association, clustering, categories and technology.Articulating your purposeGeneral Speaking Purposes and Specific Speaking Purposesgeneral purposeSpeech's broad goal: to inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept.specific purposeFocused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech.behavioral objectivesActions a speaker wants the audience to take at the end of a speech. (related to specific purposes)Considering audiences as a group of diverse peopleMaster Statuses,Standpoints, Attitudes, Beliefs,Values and Demographic Audience AnalysisMaster statusesSignificant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person's identity in almost all social situations.demographic audience analysisAnalysis that identifies the particular population traits of an questionQuestion that allows the respondent to answer in an unrestricted way.closed-ended questionQuestion that requires the respondent to choose an answer from two or more alternatives.Considering your speaking environmentSize/Physical Arrangement, Technology and Temporal Factors(Time of Day, Speaking Order, and Speaking Order)Types of information you needPersonal Knowledge/Experience, Identify the Technology You Might Use, Information on the Internet and information in the libraryFinding information on the InternetEthics of Internet Research and Evaluating Internet Information( Reliable, Authoritative, How Current/complete, Information Relevant Information Relevant)Avoid plagiarismCiting Sources Is Ethical and Adds CredibilityRules for Citing SourcesGive Credit to Others, Give Specific Information about Your Source and Deliver all Information Accurately.Five most common forms of supporting materialexamples, narratives, statistics, testimony, definitionsUse of ExamplesClarify Concepts, Reinforce Points, Bring Concepts to Life/Elicit Emotions, Build Your Case or Make Credible GeneralizationsUse of NarrativesPersonalize a Point, Challenge an Audience to Think in New Ways, Draw an Audience in Emotionally, Unite with Your AudienceUse of StatisticsSynthesize Large Amounts of Information, Numbers Tell a Powerful Story, Strengthens a ClaimUse of TestimonyNeed the Voice of an Expert, Illustrate Differences or Agreements,Experience Says It Best and Improve ListenabilityUse of DefinitionsClarify/Create Understanding, Clarify an Emotionally/ Politically Charged Word, Illustrate What Something Is Notdenotative definitionObjective meaning of a word or a phrase you find in a dictionary.connotative definitionSubjective meaning of a word or phrase based on personal experiences and beliefs.A Map of ReasoningClaim:What do you think or want to propose Grounds:Why you think something is true or want to propose it. Warrant:The evidence you have to be certain your grounds support your claim. Backing;The evidence you have to be certain your warrant supports your grounds.Main pointsIdentify your Main Points, Use an Appropriate Number of Main Points, Order Your Main PointsOrder Your Main PointsChronological pattern, Spatial Pattern, Causal Pattern, Problem-Solution Pattern,Topical PatternConnectivesTransitions, Internal Previews, Internal Summaries SignpostssignpostSimple word or statement that indicates where you are in your speech or highlights an important idea.TransitionsPhrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one idea and is moving on to a new one.The preparation outlineDetailed outline a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations of the speech.The speaking outlineCondensed form of a preparation outline that you use when speaking. Use Keywords and Phrases, Write Clearly and Legibly, Add Cues for DeliveryThe four parts/functions of an introductionCatch the Audience's Attention, Reveal the Topic of Your Speech, Establish Your Credibility, Preview Your SpeechPreparing a compelling introductionAsk a Question, Tell a Story, Recite a Quotation or a Poem, Give a Demonstration,Make an Intriguing/ Startling Statement, State the Importance of the TopicLanguage and public speakingIs Ambiguous, Culture, Gender, Accuracy, Creates Memorable Imagery, That Creates a Pleasing RhythmSemantic Triangle of Meaningsymbol:Word or phrase spoken by a speaker referent:Object, concept, or event a symbol represents. thought or reference:Memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event.Concrete languageLanguage that refers to a tangible object—a person, place, or thing.abstract languageLanguage that refers to ideas or concepts but not to specific objects.Language, imagery, and rhythmLanguage That Creates Memorable Imagery, Pleasing Rhythm,Methods of deliveryExtemporaneous Delivery, Impromptu Delivery, Manuscript Delivery, Memorized DeliveryVerbal/non-verbal components of deliveryProxemics, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Personal AppearanceTypes of visual aidsObjects, Models/Demonstrations, Handouts, Whiteboards /Smartboards, Poster Boards/Flip Charts, DVDs/ Internet ImagesUsing visual aidsStay Audience Centered, Avoid Misleading ImagesTypes of informative speechesProcesses, Events, Places/People, Objects, ConceptsThe invitational speaking environmentEnvironment in which the speaker's highest priority is to understand, respect, and appreciate the range of possible positions on an issue, even if those positions are quite different from his or her own.Using invitational languagecreate an effective invitational speaking environment and encourage deliberation is to use invitational language, present many perspectives, use fair and unbiased adjectives and a respectful tone of voice that showcases the range of ideas and does not belittle or minimize the potential of any of themLogosLogical arrangement of evidence in a speech; the first of Aristotle's three types of proof.ethosSpeaker's credibility; the second of Aristotle's three types of proof.pathosEmotional appeals made by a speaker; the third of Aristotle's three types of proof.Patterns of reasoningInduction/ Reasoning from Specific Instances, Deduction/ Reasoning from a General PrincipleDeductive reasoningProcess of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim.Inductive reasoningProcess of reasoning that uses specific instances, or examples, to make a claim about a general conclusion.Fallacies in reasoningAd populum, Appeal to fear, Appeal to ignorance, Appeal to tradition, Begging the question, False analogyTypes of Persuasive SpeechesQuestions of Fact, Questions of Value and Questions of Policy