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36 terms

ESC1000 Chapter 10 - Mountain Building and Crustal formation

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folded mountains
Type of mountains that typically form in large mountain ranges.
anticline
Upward fold in sedimentary rocks, with the oldest rocks in the middle.
Appalachians and Himalayas
Two examples of folded mountain ranges.
basin
A roughly circular downward fold, like a rounded syncline, with the youngest rocks in the middle.
Basin and Range region, South East USA
Example of fault block mountains.
Black Hills, South Dakota
Example of a dome.
brittle deformation
Three ways of making mountains: volcanic arcs, ductile deformation, _________.
cascades
Example of mountains formed by a volcanic arc.
dome
A roughly circular upwarping (upward fold), like a rounded anticline, with the oldest rocks in the middle (other than the intrusion).
ductile formation
Mountain building process involving gradual compression and folding and warping.
fault block mountains
Landscape made by long series' of horst and grabens.
folded mountains
Mountains created by continental-continental collisions, which the largest and most complex type of mountains, and which typically form in large mountain ranges.
folding, pressure, time and warping
Four processes involved in forming mountains by ductile deformation (in alphabetical order).
footwall
The side of a fault that does not hang over.
graben
The depressed block of land bordered by two parallel normal faults.
Great Lakes, Michigan Basin
Example of a basin.
hanging wall
The side of a fault that hangs over.
horst
The elevated blocks of land that border two parallel normal faults.
horst and graben fault
Type of fault where a large block is bound by parallel normal faults on either side.
Japan
Example of mountains formed by a volcanic island arc.
mountain
A large mass of earth and/or rock rising above the common level of the adjacent land.
normal fault
Tensional fault with the hanging wall block moving down relative to the footwall block.
reverse fault
Compressional fault, with the hanging wall block moving up relative to the footwall.
strike-slip fault
Type of fault where there is lateral movement rather than vertical movement.
subduction
Process involved in forming mountains by volcanic arcs.
syncline
Downward fold in sedimentary rocks with the youngest rocks in the middle.
thrust fault
Type of reverse fault, where the fault line is at a very low angle and the hanging wall slides over the footwall.
volcanic arcs
Three ways of making mountains: _________, brittle deformation, ductile formation.
brittle deformation
Mountain building process where the pressure is applied too fast for the rocks to fold.
anticlines and synclines
Five landforms formed by ductile formation: basins and domes, _______ and ________, and folded mountains.
basins and domes
Five landforms formed by ductile formation: anticlines and synclines, _______ and ________, and folded mountains.
ductile deformation
Three ways of making mountains: volcanic arcs, _________, brittle deformation.
folded mountains
Five landforms formed by ductile formation: anticlines and synclines, domes and basins, and _________.
normal and reverse faults
Six landforms formed by brittle deformation: _____and _______; thrust faults, strike-slip faults, horst and graben faulting, fault block mountains
thrust and strike-slip faults
Six landforms formed by brittle deformation: normal and reverse faults; ______and ________, horst and graben faulting, fault block mountains.
horst and graben faulting and fault block mountains
Six landforms formed by brittle deformation: normal faults, reverse faults, thrust faults, strike-slip faults; _______and _______.