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[Visual Dictionary] Column
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Gravity
Terms in this set (23)
Column
A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends.
Pillar
An upright, relatively slender shaft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a building support or standing alone as a monument.
Post
A stiff vertical support, esp. A wooden column in timber framing.
Short column
A thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section.
Intermediate column
A column having a mode of failure between that of a short column and a long column, often partly inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling.
Bifurcation
The critical point at which a column, carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium.
Critical buckling stress
The critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section.
Slenderness ratio
The ratio of the effective length of a column to its least radius of gyration.
Long column
A slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing.
Buckling
The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the material is reached.
Buckling load
The axial load at a which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unstable.
Critical buckling load
The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square of its effective length, and directly proportional to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
Radius of gyration
The radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the moment of inertia and the area.
Eccentricity
The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.
P-delta effect
An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates from the line of action of a compressive force, equal to the product of the load and the member deflection at any point.
Middle third rule
The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the section.
Effective length
The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling. The effective length of a column determines its critical buckling load.when this portion of a column buckles, the entire column fails.
Effective length factor
A coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its effective length by half and increases its load carrying capacity by a factor of 4.
Combined stresses
A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.
Kern
The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be present in the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section.
Kern point
A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area.
Lateral bracing
The bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length. Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one plane.
Unbraced length
The distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling in a direction normal to its length.
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