Biology - Ch. 3

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Carbon Bonds
can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms which allows them to form a wide variety of simple and complex organic compounds
Functional Group
influences the characteristics of the molecule and the chemical reactions it undergoes
5 Functional Groups
hydroxyl (carbohydrates), carbonyl (lipids), carboxyl (proteins), amino (proteins), and phosphate (DNA, ATP)
Monomers
small units
Polymers
made up of monomers
Condensation Reaction
joins monomers to form polymers - releases water as a byproduct
Hydrolysis Reaction
water is used to split polymers into monomers
ATP
stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function
Carbohydrate (sugar)
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen atoms in 1 oxygen atom
Monosaccharides
monomers that make up carbohydrates
Disaccharides
2 monosaccharides join to form a double sugar
Polysaccharides
3 or more disaccharides - complex sugar
Proteins
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen - have many functions including structural, defensive, and catalytic roles
Amino Acids
monomers that make up proteins - sequence of amino acids determines a protein's shape and function
Dipeptide
2 amino acids put together by peptide bonds
Polypeptide
a long chain of amino acids
Enzymes
speed up chemical reactions and bind to specific substrates - reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction to take place
Lipids (fat)
nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of the cell membrane
Fatty Acids
unbranched carbon molecules that have a hydrophylic end and hydrophobic end
Phospholipids
consists of 2 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule which make up cell membranes
Nucleic Acid
a large complex molecule that carries genetic information for cell activities
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid - contains genetic information for cell activities
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