- 4 polypeptide chains (each has 2 pairs of globin chains) - 4 Heme molecules (1 attached to each chain) - 4 Oxygen molecules (1 on each Heme molecule) - 4 Iron molecules (1 on the center of each Heme molecules)
What molecule must be present in order to carry oxygen on Hemoglobin?
Iron in the Ferrous state (Fe+2)
Where/When does Hemoglobin synthesis take place?
Where: In the Endoplasmic Reticulum of RBCs When: During the early stages of Erythropoiesis
What hormone controls Erythropoiesis?
Erythropoietin, which is produced by the Kidney
What % of the body's required oxygen is carried by hemoglobin? What else carries oxygen?
95% 5% is dissolved in plasma
What types of chain make up normal adult hemoglobin? What is it known as?
2 alpha and 2 beta chains AKA: Hemoglobin A1
What is the secondary, "normal" functioning hemoglobin? What is it made up of?
Hemoglobin A2 2 alpha and 2 delta chains
What types of chains make up normal fetal hemoglobin? What is it known as?
2 alpha and 2 gamma chains AKA: Hemoglobin F
In the first 3 months of gestation, what two forms are hemoglobin known as? What are they made of?
Gower 1: 2 zeta and 2 epsilon chains Gower 2: 2 alpha and 2 epsilon chains
Which of the transitions in hemoglobin is the most important within gestation?
The alpha gene is Gower 2. If alpha does not switch from zeta, life is not compatible.
What is anemia?
Deficiency in circulating hemoglobin
What are the 3 types of anemia?
1. Low amount of RBCs (due to trauma or bleeding, hemoglobin is normal) 2. Decrease in amount of hemoglobin per RBC, AKA: Iron Deficiency Anemia (you have the building blocks, but genetic code which doesn't support) 3. Defect in hemoglobin molecule, AKA: Sickle Cell Anemia (enough RBCs, but not enough building blocks of Heme)
What is Heredity Persistence?
When Hemoglobin F will still occur in large amounts after birth. Individual will still be functional and "normal", will only matter if participating in electrophoresis.
What are the symptoms of Anemia? Why do they occur?
-Weakness=not enough oxygen -Fatigue=not enough oxygen -Low blood pressure=low amount of RBCs -Fainting=not enough oxygen to brain
Why is oxygen important?
Needed for ATP in Krebs cycle
What are the types of abnormal Hemoglobins?
Hemoglobin S Hemoglobin C Hemoglobin E S-C Disease
What is Hemoglobin S? What does it cause?
-An abnormal Hemoglobin where valine is substituted for glutamic acid at the 6th position of the globin chain. -It causes sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait
What is sickle cell trait?
There is 1 S gene present and 1 normal gene present, only matters if body is stressed
What is Hemoglobin C? What does it cause and what population is it popular in?
-An abnormal Hemoglobin in which RBCs break down earlier than normal -Causes extreme splenomegaly, intense arthalgia (due to RBCs blocking blood vessels in joints), and chronic hemolytic anemia -Common in African-Americans
What is Hemoglobin E? What does it cause and what population is it popular in?
-A single point mutation on the Beta chain that can result in smaller RBCs associated with a resistance to malaria -Causes a very mild form of hemolytic anemia -Common in India and SE Asia
What are the 2 normal hemoglobin derivatives?
-Oxyhemoglobin=Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin molecule (Lung->Tissue) -Reduced Hemoglobin=Carbon Dioxide is bound to hemoglobin (Tissue->Lung)
When carbon monoxide attaches to hemoglobin rather than oxygen. CO has higher affinity and will always win. Causes CO poisoning.
What is Methemoglobin?
When Iron is in the Ferric State (Fe+3) therefore the hemoglobin molecule is unable to carry oxygen. It is constantly formed, but is reduced by enzymes in the RBC. Won't necessarily cause death, but will cause chronic mild anemia.
What is Sulfhemoglobin?
When Sulfur binds to hemoglobin. It is irreversible, and hemoglobin cannot carry O for life of cell. Can happen with sulfonamides, usually with no more than 5% of hemoglobin is affected.
What is Cyanmethemoglobin?
When Cyanide converts all forms of hemoglobin derivatives (except sulfhemoglobin) to this stable irreversible form of cyanomethemoglobin. Causes Cyanide poisoning, like gas chambers.
What is the Specific Gravity Test?
A cheap screeing test for blood donation. It applies the weight of blood compared to the weight of water, using a copper sulfate solution.
What is the Cyanmethemoglobin Test?
A test using Drabkin's reagent (cyaninde) to read the amount of hemoglobin in lysed RBCs using a spectrophotometer. More intense red color, more hemoglobin.
What are normal Hemoglobin values? (for adult males, adult females, newborns, 3MO, and 10YO)
Yellow plasma from icteric patients, causes falsely elevated values because of altered color read by spectrophotometer.
What is Lipemia?
Milky plasma from high cholesterol patients, only some machines will correct for error.
What is Leukemia?
WBC cancer in bone marrow, producing high WBC counts. Interferes with production of RBCs gives lower hemoglobin value.
Conditions that affect Hemoglobin values:
-AGE AND SEX DEPENDANT! -Can change based upon where location of patient. More RBCs give more hemoglobin, which make a higher normal range -Newborns have larger RBCs, so they have higher hemoglobin values
What is Hematocrit?
Percent volume of red blood cells per volume of whole blood expressed as a decimal. Also referred to as packed cell volume. It is a fast macroscopic determination as a quality control check on hemoglobin. Manual method is done in duplicate, must agree within 2% of hemoglobin determinations.
Example: Hemoglobin= 9g/dL, then Hematorcrit should be 27%.
What two types of tubes are used to manually measure hematocrit? (Microhematocrit)
-Heparanized= at bedside POC, directly from patient -Plain Tube= from anti-coagulated specimen in purple top. (EDTA is anticoagulant)
What are the cell layers of microhematocrit?
-Red Cells= heaviest because of hemoglobin, has small amount of plasma between packed cells -Buffy Coat= WBCs & Platelets -Plasma
How is automated Hematocrit different than Microhematocrit?
Automated tells you the average cell size, and doesn't include the empty space between RBCs. These values will be slightly less than manual values (1.1-3% less)
What gives False Low Hematocrit Results?
-Blood sample is QNS, excess EDTA causes cells to shrink -Hemolyzed Samples -Inadequate centrifugation sealing prevents proper packing of RBCs
What gives False High Hematocrit Results?
-Clotted blood, gives false packing of RBCs -Improper centrifuge calibration of speed/time prevents proper packing of RBCs
What are normal Hematocrit values? (for adult males, adult females, newborns, and 1YO)
Adult males= 42-52% Adult females= 36-46%
Newborns= 50-62% 1-year-olds= 31-39%
What gives Low Hematocrit Results? And why?
-Anema=low RBCs -Retaining water or IV fluids=increased plasma volume -Low Blood Pressure=not enough RBCs
What will give High Hematocrit Results? And Why?
-Trauma/Surgery=loss of blood -Burns=loss of fluids -> Low plasma volume increases hematocrit. Must be corrected or will be falsely high. -Dehydration
Microhematocrit Method (image)
Spectrophotometer Principle (image)
- abnormally low count -viral infections, <4,500 - exposure to radiation - 1,000 WBC/mm3 or lower is considered dangerously low .-.-.seen in AIDS .-.-.very low counts are not reliable on automated machines
whole blood added to diluting solution (3% acetic acid) reservoir contains 0.475 mL (475 ml) 25 mL of blood dilution is 1:20 475 + 25 = 500mL 25 = 1 500 x x = 20
Unopette Diagram (image)
.-. Counting chamber must be free of dust and grease .-. Expel first 2 drops from Unopette, then charge both sides of chamber .-. Let filled chambers stand 2 minutes to let cells settle and stabilize
WBC Counting Method
.-. Count cells in each of four corner squares .-. Each corner square is 1mm2 .-. Count cells on border of two sides only .-. Cell counts on each side of hemacytometer should be within 10 cells
WBC Counting Method (image)
Calculating the WBC Count Formula
(#cells counted x dilution factor x depth factor ) / (area counted)
Correction for Nucleated Red Blood Cells
.-. NRBCs are mistaken for WBCs and will increase WBC count .-. Corrected= WBC count - nuRBC count
.-. count number of NRBC/100 WBC counted (differential) NRBC/mm3 =(NRBC x WBC/ mm3) / (100 + NRBC)
Normal Value for Red Cell Count adult female: adult male:
adult female (4.0 to 5.5 million/mm3)
adult male (4.5 to 6.0 million/mm3 )
.-. increase in normal number of RBCs .-. Abnormally High RBC Count
(dehydration, diarrhea, vomiting) .-. no increase in actual number of red cells, decrease in plasma volume
(erythrocytosis, increase in RBC production) .-. low oxygen tension (high altitude or pulmonary disease) .-. slowing of circulation due to heart disease .-. defects in hemoglobin molecule
.-. Erythemia (leukemia of red blood cells) .-. 7-10 million cells/mm3 .-. Unknown disorder of the bone marrow
.-. due to fewer red cells .-. Abnormally Low RBC Count
Area counted .-. 5 small squares in center square .-. 1/5 mm2
Counting Area Formula
RBC/mm3 = (#cells counted) x (dilution factor) x (depth) x (area counted)
.-. Contaminated diluted fluid .-. Dirty hemacytometer .-. Too much time elapsed between drawing the sample and performing the procedure .-. Too much time elapsed between diluting the sample and charging the hemacytometer .-. Misinterpretation of the counting area on the hemacytometer
Red Cell Indices
.-. Useful in classifying anemias .-. Quantitative measurements of average cell size .-. Hemoglobin content .-. Hemoglobin concentration of RBCs
Mean Cell Volume (MCV)
.-. Average volume of a red cell .-. Units expressed in femtoliters, fL
.-.Rate at which RBCs settle out of plasma when placed in a vertical tube
Clinical Significance .-. Used as a screening procedure .-. Is nonspecific .-. Used as an index of the presence of active diseases .-. .-. inflammatory disorders that Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis .-. Infectious diseases increase globulins and fibrinogen .-. .-. increase ESR
Stages of erythrocyte sedimentation
.-. initial period of aggregation .-. period of rapid settling .-. packing
Initial period of aggregation (ESR)
1st ten minutes, rouleaux formation)
Period of rapid settling (ESR)
50 minutes, sedimentation occurs at a fairly constant rate)
10 minutes, sedimented RBCs are packed at the bottom of the column
.-. (100mm tube) .-. fill Wintrobe tube with 1ml of blood .-. use long-stemmed Pasteur pipette .-. tube set vertical for 1 hour
.-. (200mm tube) .-. 4 volumes of blood to 1 volume of anticoagulant (sodium citrate) .-. tube set vertical for 1 hour
Sources of Error in ESR
.-. Reading time .-. Temperature .-. Increased ESR .-. .-. tilting .-. .-. vibrations .-. .-. heparin alters the charge on RBC .-. Decreased ESR .-. .-. clots or bubbles .-. .-. if test is not set up within two hours, rouleaux will not form
RBC Factors Influencing ESR
.-. Rate of settling directly proportional to density .-. .-. hypochromic cells will not settle as fast .-. Countered by buoyancy, tendency to float is directly proportional to their surface area to volume ratio .-. .-. Large cells have smaller surface area in relation to volume than small cells .-. .-. abnormal shapes fall slower, rouleaux formation slower .-. Anemia increases ESR, polycythemia lowers ESR
Plasma Factors Influencing ESR
.-. Fibrinogen and globulin lower negative charge on red cell .-. .-. favor rouleaux, increase ESR .-. Albumin slows rouleaux formation, decreases ESR
Technical Errors in ESR
Red Cell Maturation .-. oxygen content of blood controls rate of RBC formation .-. under hormone control (erythropoietin) .-. produced in the kidney
.-. Remain in bone marrow for 1 day then go to peripheral circulation .-. .-. low hemoglobin takes longer maturation .-. 2 days to form mature RBC .-. Retic contains ribosomal RNA .-. .-. ribosomal RNA stained with supravital stains .-. .-. these stains will only stain living cells
Reticulocyte Count (RC) Procedures
.-. Preparing the smear .-. Counting reticulocytes
Preparing the smear (RC)
.-. mix equal parts of brilliant cresyl blue or new methylene blue with blood .-. incubate the mixture .-. prepare a blood smear in the usual measure and allow it to air dry
.-. use oil immersion .-. count 1000 cells (both RBCs and retics)
Percent of Reticulocyte Formula
(% retics) = (#retics counted x 100) / (1000 (RBCs counted)] or (% retics) = (# retics counted)/ (10)
Normal Percent RANGE males 0.5 to 1.5 females 0.5 to 2.5
Absolute # of Reticulocytes Formula
Absolute # of reticulocytes = (% retics) x (RBC count)
Normal Absolute = 60,000 retics/mm3
Reticulocytes Clinical Application
Determines if bone marrow is functioning .-. reticulocytopenia .-. .-. pernicious anemia .-. .-. aplastic anemia .-. .-. bone marrow failure .-. increase in reticulocytes .-. .-. positive response to anemia .-. .-. response to therapy
The morphology of blood cells is important to evaluate:
When flag limits established by clinical laboratory scientists in the laboratory are exceeded
The primary function of platelets is to
Facilitate blood clotting
Which of the following can be evaluated only through the microscopic examination of a stained blood film? A) White blood cell (WBC) count B) Reticulocyte count C) Hemoglobin concentration D) Presence or absence of blood cell inclusions
Presence or absence of blood cell inclusions
What is the best substance to use for cleaning oil from microscope objectives
Where must fluid-resistant laboratory coats be worn?
Walking to a patient room to collect a sample
Universal standard precautions written by OSHA are designed to:
Protect employees from possible infectious contamination.
Which of the following is acceptable safe practice?
Disposing of used glass slides in sharps container
Fire drills should be conducted _____
Personal protective clothing, which must be provided by the employer, includes:
The employer must provide gloves for all employees. These should be latex, and alternatives should be available for those employees with latex sensitivity or allergy
A 10% solution of household bleach is used to clean contaminated surfaces in the clinical laboratory. This 10% solution should be prepared:
What can increase the resolution of an object under the microscope?
Enlarging the numeric aperture of the objective lens
is the ability to distinguish two objects closely situated to one another as distinct entities. Increasing the numeric aperture increases resolution.
Where should the condenser be located when using the ´100 oil objective?
What is the most likely reason for cells on a hemocytometer appearing "fuzzy" when switching from low power to the ´40 objective?
Oil on the 40´ lens
What immersion oil is used most commonly in hematology?
The different types of oil differ with respect to their viscosity (i.e., thickness). The one most commonly used in hematology is type B, which has high viscosity. Type A has a low viscosity, and type C has a very high viscosity
What solution is best for cleaning lenses?
Commercial glass cleaning solution
microscope to its clinical use: _____ Routine differentials
microscope to its clinical use: _____ Used with fluorochrome dyes to identify lymphocyte subsets
microscope to its clinical use: _____ Identifying crystals in synovial fluid
microscope to its clinical use: _____ Counting platelets manually
microscope to its clinical use: _____ Viewing spirochetes in microbiology
Which of the following procedures is safe from the production of an aerosol mist?
Manual differentials on blood films
Manual cell counting methods in automated hematology laboratories are used for all of the following except: A) Routine testing B) Very low counts C) Malfunctioning automated instruments D) Counting spinal fluids
A) Routine testing
Twenty cells are counted in one of the nine large squares of a hemocytometer. The sample is diluted 1:10. How many cells are present per mL? A) 200 B) 1000 C) 2000 D) 20,000
What error was probably made if red cells are seen when attempting to manually count white blood cell (WBCs) on a hemocytometer?
The Unopette was not allowed to sit for 10 minutes for complete red blood cell (RBC) lysis
Which of the following would cause a manual cell count to be falsely high?
Not wiping excess blood from outside of pipette when filling
Ten nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) are found in a blood film when differentiating 100 white cells. What is the corrected white blood count if the automated cell counter printed a count of 10.0 ´ 109/L?
9.1 ´ 109/L
Why is it important to have a scrupulously clean hemocytometer when manually counting platelets?
Their small size makes them easily confused with dirt.
In the center square on one side of a hemocytometer, 100 platelets were found; 200 were found in the center square on the other side. Select the best course of action.
Repeat the procedure—the two counts are not close enough.
Which of the following could cause the microhematocrit to be falsely decreased? A) Specimen contaminated with intravenous fluid B) Trapped plasma from abnormally shaped red cells C) Dehydration D) Insufficient centrifugation
A) Specimen contaminated with intravenous fluid
The MCV on a patient is calculated to be 115 fL and the MCHC is 35 g/dL. What, in general terms, must be true of the MCH if it is consistent with the previous two indices?
It should be above reference range.
On a standard reticulocyte preparation with new methylene blue, 100 cells are counted that contain blue-stained granulofilamentous material. The red blood count is 3.22 ´ 1012/L, and the hematocrit is 30%. Calculate the reticulocyte count as a percentage.
What cellular component of the erythrocyte is its control center?
The nucleus is the control center of the cell, is responsible for all its chemical reactions, and is the site of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and transcription.
How does the genetically active portion of the nuclear chromatin look when stained with Wright stain?
Diffuse, uncondensed and pale blue
The genetically active portion of the nuclear chromatin, composed of DNA plus supporting proteins, appears diffuse and uncondensed and stains pale blue with Wright stain. It is also called euchromatin. Chromatin, which is condensed and stains darkly, is also called heterochromatin; it is the genetically inactive portion of the nucleus.
If the cytoplasm of a cell is very basophilic or blue when stained with Wright stain it contains:
Large number of ribosomes
Ribosomes, which are made up of ribonucleic acid (RNA), stain blue or basophilic with Wright stain. If a cell's cytoplasm contains many ribosomes, then it will stain very blue.
Protein synthesis occurs in what part of a cell?
Which of the following morphologic characteristics is representative of apoptosis?
How do cells get from the bone marrow into peripheral circulation?
Mature cells squeeze through spaces in the vessel endothelial lining.
As mature blood cells come into contact with endothelial cells in the bone marrow, they bind to the surface via a receptor-mediated process. The binding creates a space between the luminal adventitial and endothelial cells. This allows the bone marrow cells to escape into circulation.
When hematopoiesis occurs in the liver in an adult, it is called:
Whenever hematopoiesis occurs outside the bone marrow in an adult, other than lymphopoiesis in lymphatic tissue, it is called extramedullary. This is abnormal.
Where are developing red cells located in the bone marrow?
Adjacent to the outer surfaces of the vascular sinuses
Maturing red cells are found in two places in the bone marrow: (1) adjacent to the outer surfaces of the vascular sinuses and (2) surrounding iron-laden macrophages
Why are erythrocyte cellular inclusions such as Howell-Jolly bodies found after surgical removal of the spleen?
The absent spleen cannot "pit" or remove the normally formed inclusions.
Macrophages in the spleen normally remove abnormal inclusions from red cells, which includes Howell-Jolly bodies. This process is called pitting.
What condition is most associated with autosplenectomy?
Sickle cell anemia
In sickle cell anemia, repeated sickling events in the spleen, where the red cells are stressed, result in multiple splenic infarcts. Eventually, the spleen is no longer functional. This results in functional loss of the spleen and is called an autosplenectomy.
Programmed cell death
is a normal physiologic process eliminating unwanted, abnormal, or harmful cells.
accidental death because of trauma
What directs the mitosis and maturation action of progenitor neutrophil cells in the bone marrow?
Colony-stimulating cytokines bind to receptors on progenitor cells to direct them to undergo mitosis and to mature to identifiable neutrophil precursor cells. Erythropoietin is the primary cytokine for red cell development. Neither the number of stem cells nor the number of mature cells in circulation function in this role.
What is the earliest stage of maturation where a neutrophil can be distinguished from an eosinophil?
Eosinophil granules differentiate the eosinophils from the neutrophil at the early myelocyte stage. Before this, the myeloblast and promyelocyte stages are indistinguishable by morphology.
Which of the following neutrophils is capable of chemotaxis? A) Progenitor cells B) Stem cells C) Promyelocytes D) Bands
The band neutrophil is capable of chemotaxis (i.e., it can move along a chemical gradient). It is an almost mature polymorphonuclear neutrophil, and has full motility, active adhesion properties, and some phagocytic ability.
Which of the following has the most controversial morphologic identification system? A) Progenitor cells B) Stem cells C) Promyelocytes D) Bands
At least three systems exist for morphologic identification of band neutrophils. They vary with the shape of the nucleus. Hematology analyzers that perform automated differentials classify them (bands) with polymorphonuclear (segmented) neutrophils; therefore many laboratories now use the same criteria when identifying cells using the microscope.