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8th Grade Math Final Exam Study Guide
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (109)
Volume of a Cone
v = 1/3 radius^2 x height
Volume of a Cylinder
v = radius^2 x height
Legs
In a right triangle, the sides that include the right angle, in an isosceles triangle, the pair of congruent sides.
Outlier
A value much greater or much less than the others in a data set.
Input
The value substituted into an expression or function.
Domain
The set of all possible input values of a function.
Reciprocal
One of two numbers whose product is 1; also called multiplicative input.
Power
A number produced by raising a base to an exponent.
Slope
A measure of the steepness of a line; the rise divided by the run.
Substitute
To replace a variable with number or another expression in an algebraic expression.
Scale Factor
The ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures.
Y- Axis
The vertical axis on a coordinate plane.
Terminating Decimal
A decimal number that terminates.
Point
An exact location in a space.
Principal Square Root
The nonnegative square root of a number.
Function
An input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input.
Evaluate
To find the value of a numerical or algebraic expression.
Alternate Interior Angles
A pair of angles on the inner side of two lines of transversal that are on opposite sides of the transversal.
Absolute Value
The distance of a number from zero on a number line; shown by I I.
Transformation
A change in the size or position of a figure.
Translation
A movement (slide) of a figure along a straight line.
Radius
A line segment with one endpoint at the center of the circle and the other endpoint on the circle.
Right Angle
An angle that measures 90 degrees.
Like Terms
2 or more terms that have the same variable, raised to the same power.
Ordered Pair
A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane.
Clockwise
A circular movement to the right.
Constant
A value that does not change.
Transversal
A line that intersects two or more lines.
X- Axis
The horizontal axis on a coordinate plane.
Similar Figures
Figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size.
Run
The horizontal change when the slope of a line is expressed as the ratio rise / run.
Exponent
The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor.
Equation
A mathematical sentence that shows that two expressions are equivalent.
Acute Angle
An angle that measures less than 90 degrees.
Alternate Exterior Angles
A pair of angles on the outer side of the two lines cut by a transversal that are on opposite sides of the transversal.
Y- Intercept
The Y coordinate of the point where the graph of a line crosses the Y- axis.
Central Angle
An angle formed by two radii with its vertex on the center of the circle.
Square Root
One of the two equal factors of a number.
Volume of a Sphere
V = 4/3 x Pi x radius^3
Function Table
A table of ordered pairs that represent solutions of a function.
Hypotenuse
In a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle.
No Correlation
Two data sets have no correlation when there is no relationships between their data values.
Coordinate Plane
A plane formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line called the X-axis and a vertical umber line called the Y-axis.
FOIL
An acronym for terms used when multiplying two binomials: the First, Inner, Outer, and Last.
Factor
A number that is multiplied by another number to get a product.
Repeating Decimal
A decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely.
Reflection
A transformation of a figure that flips the figure across a line.
Perfect Square
A square of a whole number.
Origin
The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane.
Congruent
Having the same size and shape.
Coefficient
The number that is multiplied by the variable in an algebraic expression.
Solution Set
The set of values that make a statement true.
Standard Form
ax + by + c = 0
Scientific Notation
A method of writing very large or small numbers by using powers of 10.
Slope Intercept Form
A linear equation written in the form of y = mx + b where m represents slope and b represents the y intercept.
Inequality
A mathematical sentence that shows the relationship between quantities that are not equivalent.
Image
A figure resulting from a transformation.
Adjacent Angles
Angles in the same plane that have a common vertex and a common side.
Coordinate
One of the numbers of an ordered pair that locate a point on a coordinate graph.
Chord
A segment with its endpoints on a circle.
Point- Slope Formula
The equation of line in the form of y - y1 = x - x1 where m is the slope.
Rise
The vertical change when the slope of a line is expressed as the ratio rise / run.
Rotation
A transformation in which a figure is turned around a point.
Irrational Number
A number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a terminating or repeating decimal.
Integers
The set of whole numbers and their opposites.
Diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has endpoints on the circle.
Dilation
A transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure.
Degree of a Polynomial
The highest power of the variable in a polynomial.
X- Coordinate
The first number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move left or right from the origin.
Range of a Function
The set of all possible output values of a function.
Solution of a System of Equations
A set of values that make all equations in a system true.
Linear Equation
An equation whose solution form a straight line on a coordinate plane.
Interior Angles
Angles on the interior sides of two lines cut by a transversal.
Vertical Angles
A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines.
Unit Rate
A rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit.
Rational Number
Any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.
Radical Symbol
The symbol used to represent the nonnegative square root of a number.
Corresponding Angles
Matching angles of two or more polygons.
Scatter Plot
A graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship between two sets of data.
Y- Coordinate
The second number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move up or down from the origin.
Quadratic Function
A function of the form y = ax^2 + bx^2 + c where a is not equal to zero.
Dimensions of a Matrix
The number of horizontal rows and vertical columns in a matrix.
Real Number
A rational or irrational number.
Quadrant
The X and Y axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions.
Output
The value that results from the substitution of a given input into an expression or function.
Parabola
The graph of a quadratic function.
Direct Variation
A relationship between two variables in which the data increase or decrease at a constant rate.
Corresponding Sides
Matching sides of two or more polygons.
Inscribed Angle
An angle formed by two chords with its vertex on a circle.
Circumference
The distance around a circle.
Boundary Line
The set of points where the two sides of a two-variable linear inequality are equal.
Perimeter
The distance around a polygon.
Nonterminating Decimal
A decimal that never ends.
Nonlinear Function
A function whose graph is not a straight line.
Line of Best Fit
A straight line that comes closest to the points of a scatter plot.
Pi
The ratio of the circumference of a circle to the length of its diameter.
Counterclockwise
A circular movement to the left.
Complementary Angles
Two angles whose measures add up to 90 degrees.
Graph
A set of points and the line segments or arcs that connect the points.
Linear Function
A function whose graph is a straight line.
Algebraic Expression
An expression that contains at least one variable.
Perpendicular Lines
Lines that intersect to form right angles.
Pythagorean Theorem
In a right triangle, the square of the length that is equal to the sum of the square of the lengths of the legs.
Congruent Angles
Angles that have the same measures.
Expression
A mathematical phrase that contains operations, numbers, and/or variables.
X- Intercept
The X coordinate of the point where the graph of a line crosses the X axis.
Supplementary Angles
Two angles whose measures have a sum of 180 degrees.
Negative Correlation
Two data sets have this correlation if one set of data values increase while the other increases while the other decreases.
Positive Correlation
Two data sets have this correlation when their data values increase or decrease together.
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