Ch 11 Leadership: What makes an effective leader
Terms in this set (31)
** Slide: What is Leadership?
Ven Diagram for leadership:
1) Leader: traits, behaviors, decision style
2) Followers: levels of experience, similarity with leader, willingness to obey
3) Situation: culture, type of tasks, environment
a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. influencing employees to voluntarily pursue organizational (or other) goals
followers: people seek, admire, and respect leaders who create feelings of ... (3)
1. significance: what someone does at work is important and meaningful
2. community: a sense of unity encourages people to treat others with respect and dignity and to work together in pursuit of organizational goals
3. excitement: people are engaged and feel energy at work
behavior style approach: can people be taught to be effective leaders?
yes. leaders are made, not born. traits can be developed through experience and learning; you don't have to be born a "great man."
"behavior theories:" what behaviors do leaders exhibit? Who emerges as a leader of a group, and how?
personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers. physical or personality characteristics.
mental representations of the traits and behaviors possessed by leaders/that we associate with leaders. they determine whether we perceive someone as a leader.
the big five personality traits and leadership effectiveness
1. extraversion: most consistently and positively correlated
2. conscientiousness: positively correlated
3. openness to experience: positively correlated
intelligence: modestly correlated
* personality is more important than intelligence
emotional intelligence: positively correlated
key positive leadership traits
intelligence; self-confidence; determination; honesty/integrity; sociability; emotional intelligence; extraversion; conscientiousness
gender and leadership
men: more task leadership, autocratic and directive style, assertive
women: greater social leadership, democratic/participative style, assertive ALSO, score higher on effectiveness criteria*
the Ohio state and university of Michigan studies: 2 independent dimensions of leader behavior
1) consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers. concern for group members' needs and desires. (employee-centered style)
2) initiating structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing. maximizing output. (job-centered style)
the Ohio state and university of Michigan studies: 4 behavioral styles of leadership
1. low structure-high consideration
2. high structure-high consideration
3. low structure-low consideration
4. high structure-low consideration
*there is no one best style; effectiveness of styles depends on situational factors.
Robert blake and jane mouton: the leadership grid and 5 styles
2 dimensions of leader behavior:
(concern for production; concern for people)
5 management styles:
1) impoverished (low, low)
2) country club (low, high)
3) authority-compliance (high, low)
4) middle o/t road (middle, middle)
5) team management (high, high) ** the best style
the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior should match the situation at hand; it depends. different situation = different style.
Fiedler's contingency model (situational)
a leader's performance depends on 2 things:
1) situational control: the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence.
2) the leader's basic motivation; whether the leader's self-esteem depends primarily on accomplishing the task or on having close supportive relations with others. (task motivated or relationship motivated)
Fiedler's contingency model: 3 dimensions of leaders' situational control
1) leader-member relations: the extent to which the leader has the group's support, loyalty, and trust
2) task structure: the amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group
3) position power: the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance from employees
* combinations of these form the 8 types of situational control
Fiedler's contingency model: 8 types of situational control
situational control: high
optimal leadership style: task-motivated
situational control: moderate
optimal leadership style: relationship-motivated
situational control: low
optimal leadership style: task-motivated
* no best style. leaders should alter their task and relationship orientation to fit the demands of the situation at hand.
situational variables that influence the appropriateness of a leadership style; that cause one style to be more effective than another
Robert House's Path-goal theory
leader behaviors >>>
employee characteristics: locus of control; task ability; need for achievement; experience; need for clarity
environmental factors: task structure; work group dynamics
>>> leadership effectiveness
*** effective leaders possess and use more than one style. leaders should modify style to fit various employee and task characteristics
Robert House: types of leadership behavior (8)
1) path-goal clarifying: clarifying performance goals; guiding how to complete tasks; setting performance standards/expectations; rewarding
2) achievement-oriented: challenging goals; emphasizing excellence; confidence in employees' abilities
3) work facilitation: planning, scheduling, organizing, coordinating work; coaching and feedback; ridding of road blocks; providing resources; empowering employees
4) supportive: concern for employees' well being and needs; friendly and approachable; equality w/ employees
5) interaction facilitation: resolve disputes; facilitate communication; encouraging minority view expression; collaboration; positive work relationships
6) group-oriented decision-making: posing problems rather than solutions for the group; participative decision-making; sharing info
7) representation and networking: presenting group in positive light; maintaining relationships w influential people; favors; participating in organizational functions/events
8) value-based: establish vision, display passion, support vision, self-confidence, high expectations, frequent positive feedback
transactional leadership v. transformational leadership
transactional: clarifying employees' role/task requirements; providing positive and negative rewards contingent on performance; setting goals; monitoring progress; rewarding and punishing. EXTRINSIC motivation for productivity.
transformational: transform employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests; engender trust; develop leadership in others; self-sacrifice; moral agents; focus on objectives that transcend immediate needs of work group. INTRINSIC motivation. elicit commitment and loyalty.
* the best leaders display both types. transactional is necessary, while transformational augments effectiveness.
transformational model of leadership
individual and org. characteristics: traits; org. culture
leader behaviors: inspirational motivation; idealized influence; individualized consideration; intellectual stimulation
effects on followers and work groups: increased intrinsic motivation, achievement orientation, and goal pursuit; identification and trust w leader; identification and cohesion w work group; increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interests in goal accomplishment; increased role-modeling of transformational leadership
outcomes: personal commitment to leader/vision; self-sacrificial behavior; org commitment; task meaningfulness and satisfaction; increased individual, group, and org performance
4 key sets of leader behavior for transformational leaders
1) inspirational motivation: est. an attractive, realistic, credible vision of the future for the org; beacon of hope and common purpose; emotional arguments; optimism and enthusiasm.
2) idealized influence: sacrificing for the good of the group; role-modeling; high ethical standards; model values, traits, beliefs and behaviors needed to realize vision
3) individualized consideration: support, encouragement, empowerment, and coaching to employees as individuals
4) intellectual stimulation: encourage employees to question the status quo and innovate/creative solutions to org problems
GLOBE project: U Penn, Robert House. Which leadership attributes are universally liked/disliked? (62 nations)
trust; just; honest; foresight; intelligent; plan ahead; encourage; positive; dynamic; motivating; confidence builder; dependable; decisive; effective bargainer; win-win problem solver; administrative skills; communicative; informed; coordinator; team builder; excellence oriented
loner; asocial; noncooperative; irritable; non explicit; egocentric; ruthless; dictatorial
leader-member exchange (LMX) model of leadership
focused on the quality of relationships b/t managers and subordinates. not focused on behaviors or traits of leaders or followers.
the development of dyadic relationships b/t managers and direct reports.
leaders should develop UNIQUE, 1-to-1 relationships with each and every report (a vertical dyad relationship).
2 types of LMX relationships
1) in-group exchange: mutual trust, respect, and liking. reciprocal influence. a sense of common fates.
2) out-group exchange: LACK of mutual respect, trust, and liking. leaders as overseers who fail to create mutuality or common fate.
variables that influence quality of an LMX
high personality similarity (don't create a homogeneous work environment tho - balance)
high demographic similarity (don't create a homogeneous work environment tho - balance)
extent of mutual liking
leaders' positive expectations of subordinates (higher expectations = higher quality LMX)
frequency of communications
tips for improving LMX for EMPLOYEES
1) focus on goals; remain positive about goals.
2) empower yourself to get things done; avoid powerlessness
3) exercise power you have in situations you CAN control; avoid dwelling on things you cannot control
4) raise trust level w frequent communication, following through on commitments, and achieving goals
5) use an authentic, respectful, and assertive approach to resolving differences; problem-solving behaviors
the idea that people need to share info & collaborate in order to get work done. a horizontal process of influence/leadership.
a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading REGARDLESS OF FORMAL ROLES AND TITLES.
* need when: people work in teams; people are involved in COMPLEX projects involving INTER-dependence and CREATIVITY; people are doing knowledge work - requires intellectual capital contributed by various skilled professionals
4 categories of leadership behaviors (vertical and horizontal) that support positive team outcomes:
1) directive leadership to provide task-focused outcomes
2) transactional leadership to reward good performance
3) transformational leadership to stimulate commitment and emotional engagement
4) empowering leadership to reinforce the importance of self-motivation
servant-leadership + characteristics
great leaders act as servants, making the needs of others (employees, customers, community) their first priority.
increased service to others rather than oneself.
1) listening: to identify group's needs and desires
2) empathy: understanding feelings/emotions and assuming they have good intentions
3) healing: making people whole again when they have suffered or failed
4) awareness: recognizing own strengths and weaknesses/limitations
5) persuasion: instead of authority, for influence/decision-making
6) conceptualization: broader-based thinking to balance short & long term views
7) foresight: predicting future outcomes for courses of action
8) stewardship: being the steward of the people and resources they manage
9) commitment to people's growth: encouraging personal, professional, and spiritual development
10) build community: sense of community in and outside of org
* serve the "internal customer"
* servant-leaders make their followers wiser, healthier, more autonomous, and more likely to servant-lead themselves.
* transformational approach
- DOES NOT MEAN THEY DO NOT MAKE MONEY
- they create situations in which people can thrive
- they have a strong sense of empathy
- they listen to others
- they have generally good intentions
- they are committed to people's growth and direction in life
Level 5 leadership; the level 5 heirarchy
every company that experienced a good-to-great performance transformation was led by an individual with level 5 leadership characteristics
level 5: executive
builds enduring greatness thru a paradoxical blend of HUMILITY (humble) and professional WILL TO SUCCEED (fiercely/fearlessly determined). subdue own ego and needs for greater good of others/org.
must possess capabilities of all 5 levels
both transactional and transformational
level 4: effective leader
catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of clear/compelling vision; stimulates higher performance standards
level 3: competent manager
organizes people and resources toward effective/efficient pursuit of set objectives
level 2: contributing team member
contributes own capabilities to group objectives; works effectively w others in a group
level 1: highly capable individual
makes productive contributions thru talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits