141 terms

Biology Test 5-18

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Terms in this set (...)

Predator
Captures, kills, and consumes another individual.
Prey
What is being hunted by predator.
Herbivore
Animal that eats plants.
Secondary Compound
Synthesis chemicals from products of herbivores' metabolisms.
Parasite
Organism that feeds on another individual.
Host
Organism that the parasite feeds on.
An example of mimicry that is important in anti-predator defenses is when...
A harmless species resembles a dangerous species.
One difference between predators and parasites is that parasites...
Usually do not cause the immediate death of the organism they feed on.
Magpies and crows are scavenger birds that feed on the same food sources and cannot live in the same community. This is an example of...
Competitive exclusion.
A change in anatomy that results when two species compete for the same resource is called...
Character displacement.
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not affected is called...
Parasitism.
How are secondary compounds useful to plants?
They are defense mechanisms and prevents them from being eaten.
How are secondary compounds useful to humans?
Some secondary compounds can be used for medicinal reasons.
How do ectoparasites differ from endoparasites?
Ectoparasites live externally and endoparasites live internally.
Explain how Darwin's finches illustrate the principle of character displacement.
Because the islands were isolated from each other, the species of birds on each island started to differ accordingly.
A biologist finds that when two species of paramecia are grown together in the laboratory, one species always outcompetes and eliminates the other. Inn ponds and other natural environments, however, the two species coexist. Suggest a hypothesis to explain this phenomenon.
When two organisms are alone together, they will compete. One organisms will outcompete the other, and will continue to eliminate the other, as opposed to when there are other organisms, it is harder for one organism to outcompete another.
Example of endoparasite.
Tapeworm.
Example of physical defense.
Thorns.
Example of mimicry.
Kingsnake.
Example of secondary compound.
Poison ivy.
Example of ectoparasite.
Deer tick.
Example of a pollinator.
Butterfly.
Species richness
Number of species a community contains.
Species diversity
Relates the number of species in the community to the relative abundance of each species.
Species-area effect
Relationship that explains how larger areas usually contain more species than smaller areas.
Stability
Indicates a community's resistance to change.
Why are there more species in the tropics than three re in the temperate zones?
Temperate habitats are younger, the climate is more stable in the tropics, and because plants can photosynthesize year-ruond, there is more energy averrable to support more organisms.
Why does species richness increase with increasing area?
Larger areas usually contain a greater diversity of habitats and thus can support more species.
What is the relationship between stability and species richness?
Communities with more species would contain more links between species. Also, species richness improves a community's stability.
Primary succession
Development of a community in an area that has not supported life previously.
Secondary succession
Sequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community.
Pioneer species
Small, fast-growing, and fast-reproducing species well suited for invading and occupying a disrupted habitat.
Climax community
A stable end point reached by a predictable series of stages.
Succession is...
The gradual, sequential development of species in an area.
Primary succession may occur...
On an island formed by a volcanic eruption.
A species that predominate early in the development of a community are called...
Pioneer species.
In the eastern United States, succession often begins with...
Weeds and grasses.
The stable end point of succession is called...
Climax community.
Why does primary succession often proceed very slowly?
There are no previous necessary minerals.
Describe two ways that bare rock can be converted into soil.
Freezing and thawing rock, and lichens colonizing the bare rock.
Name five events that could initiate secondary succession.
Forest fire, natural catastrophe, agriculture, logging, mining.
Name three factors that could influence the path of succession in a particular area.
The species present, the order they arrive, and the climate.
What are the characteristics of a pioneer species?
Small, fast-growing, fast-reproducing, well suited for invading and occupying a disturbed habitat.
A volcanic eruption removes all plant life from a valley below the volcano. Explain why succession following the eruption is likely to occur more quickly on the valley floor than on the steep slopes that form the valley walls.
The rain washes nutrients down the valley walls to the valley floor.
Order of succession that follows a forest fire.
Burned wood, ashes; Grasses, weeds; Shrubs; and Pines, spruces.
Biome
Very large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems within them.
Tundra
Cold, treeless biome that forms a continuous belt across NA, Europe, and Asia.
Taiga
Forested biome covered with cone-bearing evergreen trees.
Savanna
Tropical or subtropical grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs.
Canopy
Continuous layer formed by a treetop.
The biome that is characterized by the presence of permafrost is called...
Tundra.
Plants living in the taiga are adapted for...
Long, cold winters.
Prairie, steppe, and veldt are different names for the biome known as...
Temperate grassland.
What is NOT an adaption that limits water loss in desert plants?
Broad, thin leaves.
The amount of light that reaches the floor of a tropical rain forest is limited by the...
Forest canopy.
Name two factors that limit tree growth in the tundra.
Temperature and permafrost.
What characteristic of grasses enables these plants to survive occasional fires and continuous grazing by animals?
They grow at or below the ground instead of at the tip.
How are the plants of savannas adapted to the rainfall patterns of this biome?
Trees shed their leaves and grass die and regenerate according to the season.
Describe three adaptations of desert organisms that conserve water.
Have waxy layers that reduce evaporation, open their stomata at night, and have spikes to defend from tother animals.
Why aren't the forests of the taiga cut down and converted into farmland as often as temperate deciduous forests?
They have poor growing season.
Why are vines so common in rain forests?
They climb to get light.
Describe the tropical rainforest.
High temperature, high precipitation, and low soil/nutrient content.
Describe the tundra.
Low temperature, low precipitation, and low soil/nutrient content.
Describe the temperate grasslands.
Medium temperature, medium precipitation, and high soil/nutrient content.
Describe the desert.
High temperature, low precipitation, and low soil/nutrient content.
Photic zone
Part of the ocean that receives sunlight.
Aphotic zone
Part of the ocean where sunlight can't penetrate.
Eutrophic lake
Rich in organic matter and vegetation.
Oligotrophic lake
Contains little organic matter.
What is NOT an environmental factor that organisms in the intertidal zone must cope with?
Constant darkness.
Coral reefs form in the...
Neritic zone.
There are fewer species in the oceanic zone than in the neritic zone because the oceanic zone...
Has low nutrient levels.
A salt marsh is an example of an...
Estuary.
Eutrophic lakes...
Are rich in vegetation.
What are some adaptations of intertidal organisms that enable them to survive in this zone?
Burrowing into the sand/mud, retreating into their shells, and clinging to surfaces.
Why is plankton important of aquatic ecosystems?
Because it is consumed by many larger organisms.
Explain how producers near deep-sea vents obtain energy.
Chemosynthetic bacteria.
Water that drains from agricultural fields during heavy rains or over-irrigation may contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients. What effect might this water have if it is allowed to enter an oligotrophic lake?
It can cause an increase in vegetation/organic matter. In the long term, they would die, decompose, and have a negative effect on the lake because there would be less oxygen.
Density dependent factor
Factors that kill more individuals in large populations than in small ones.
Density-independent factor
Factors that kill the same percentage of a population regardless of its size.
Density
Measures how crowded a population is.
Dispersion
Spatial distribution of individuals within the population.
Exponential growth
A population increases rapidly after only a few generations; the larger the population gets, the faster it grows.
Logistic growth
When a population size is at its carrying capacity, the birth rate equals the death rate and growth stops.
Carrying capacity
The number of individual the environment can support over a long period of time.
Developing countries
These countries are poorer than the more developed countries, and their populations are growing much faster. The rate is 0.02 per capita.
Developed countries
People in these countries are better educated, healthier, and live longer than the rest of the world's population. The rate is less than 0.01 per capita.
A clumped distribution...
May occur when resources are concentrated.
Life expectancy...
Is the average life span.
Population growth...
Is the change in the number of individuals in a population over a period of time.
In the exponential model, the growth rate...
Changes with population size.
According to the exponential model...
Population growth continues indefinitely.
What is NOT true of the carrying capacity in the logistic model?
The carrying capacity in the logistic model is the population size at which the birth rate equals the death rate.
What is NOT a density-independent factor for a population of deer in a forest?
The number of cougars in the forest.
Inbreeding can be harmful to a population because it...
Can increase mortality rate of offspring.
During the hunter-gatherer period of human history...
Death rates were high.
The cause of the decline in death rates following WW2 was...
Improved hygiene and medical care.
A scientist observes that the population of turtles in a pond shows a clumped distribution. Explain two reasons why turtles might show this kind of distribution.
1. Turtles need to get out of the water and into the sun, and the uneven distribution of logs causes clumped distribution.
2. Because of an uneven distribution of the turtles' food.
What is a survivorship curve? What are the three types of survivorship curves? Name an organism that shows each kind of curve.
Curve where the mortality rate data of different species tend to conform to one of three curves on a graph. Three types are as followed:
Type I: Pattern where the likelihood of dying is small until late in life (humans).
Type 2: Pattern where the probability of dying does not change throughout life (birds).
Type 3: Pattern where organisms are very likely to die young, however if it survives this period, it has a good chance of surviving to old age (salmon).
Explain one key assumption of the exponential model of population growth. What does the model help scientists predict about changes in population size over time?
One key assumption is that the birth and death rates are constant. This predicts that population will increase indefinitely.
Explain three reasons why small populations are particularly vulnerable to extinction.
Because they are more vulnerable to disease, disasters, and have a low rate of population growth, and
What was the agricultural revolution? What effect did it have on population growth? Before the agricultural revolution occurred, how did people obtain food?
The dramatic change in lifestyle when humans discovered how to domesticate animals and cultivate certain plants for food. It caused the population to grow faster and increase population incredibly. They used to get food by being hunter-gatherers.
The human population began to grow very rapidly about 1650. Describe three factors that caused this change in the rate of population growth.
Improvements in hygiene, diet, and economic conditions.
Because we humans have more power to alter our environment than other animals do, we can affect the carrying capacity of our environment. How do we increase or decrease the carrying capacity of our local area?
Medicine and sanitation can increase carrying capacity.
The cause of the population cycle of the snowshoe hare is still a mystery. Suggest two possible explanations for why this cycle occurs. Describe how you would test each possibility.
The snowshoe hare are hunted by lynxes. As the population of lynxes rose, the population of hares decreased. Also, as the population of lynxes decreased, the population of hares increased. You can test this by observing these two populations in an area after many years.
Explain how disease could be a density-dependent factor in a population.
The more organisms, in a population, the faster the disease spreads, therefore killing more organisms.
Ecology
Study of the interaction between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.
Greenhouse effect
Effect where CO2 and water vapor intercept reflects heat and directs it back to earth.
biosphere
Thin layer of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life.
Ecosystem
Smaller units of the biosphere that includes all of the organisms and nonliving environment in a place.
Community
All interacting organisms living in an area.
Population
All members of a species that live in one place.
What percentage of the world's species are expected to disappear in the next century if the current rate of extinction continues?
20%
The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is diminishing most over...
Antarctica.
The broadest, most inclusive level of ecological organization is the...
Biosphere.
A pond is an example of
An ecosystem.
Ecologists use models to
Account for the influence of every variable in a real environment.
What factors contributed to the extinction of native birds on the Hawaiian Islands after humans arrived?
Habit destruction, overhunting, disease, predators.
Why is the thinning of Earth's ozone layer a serious problem?
UV radiation, will result in sunburn and skin cancer.
How does a population differ from a community?
A population focuses on a single species.
How might the destruction of large areas of tropical rain forest have worldwide consequences?
Because rainforests convert CO2 into oxygen.
habitat
Where an organism lives
Resource
Energy and materials the species needs.
Biotic factor
All living things that affect an organism
abiotic factor
nonliving factors that affect an organism
Conformer
Organisms that don't regulate their internal conditions
Regulator
Organisms that use energy to control internal conditions
Fundamental niche
Range of conditions that a species can potentially tolerate and the range of resources it can potentially use
Realized niche
Range of resources a species can use.
Generalist
Species with broad niches
Specialist
Species with narrow niches
One biotic factor that could influence a plant might be
a pollinating insect
People who spend time at high elevations develop more red blood cells, which helps them obtain oxygen from the "thin air." This phenomenon is an example of...
Acclimation
an animal that maintains its body temperature within a narrow range even when the environmental temperature varies is an example of a...
Generalist
The role a species plays in its environment is called the species'...
niche
An animal that feeds on leaves from only a few species of plants is an example of a...
specialist.
Give three examples of abiotic factors and explain how they interact.
Temperature, humidity, pH. Organisms react to the changes in these.
What are two ways that some organisms can escape from unfavorable environmental conditions?
Hide underground, enter dormancy.
Explain why the Virginia opossum is considered a generalist and the koala is considered a specialist.
The opossum feeds on almost everything, while the koala only feeds on leaves from some eucalyptus trees.
Explain how a species' habitat differs from its niche.
The niche is the role that an organism plays in a habitat.
How could knowledge of a pest organism's tolerance limits be used in pest control?
Because a person can use the things beyond a pest's tolerance to get rid of it.
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