FalseTrue/False: The female gonadal dose is approximately that of the midline dose & is almost the same for either AP or PA projection of the L-spine.opens the disk space by reducing normal L-spine curvatureWhy should the knees & hips be flexed for an AP projection of the L-spine?FalseTrue/False: A lead blocker mat for lateral positions of the L-spine should NOT be used w/ digital imaging.TrueTrue/False: The efficiency of CT & MRI of the spine is reducing the number of boring myelograms being performed.b. Compression fractureAnterior wedging & loss of vertebral body height are characteristic of:
a. Chance fracture
b. Compression fracture
c. Spina bifida
d. Spondylolysisb. Spina bifidaWhich one of the following conditions is often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound?
b. Spina bifida
d. Ankylosing spondylitisa. Ankylosing spondylitisWhich one of the following conditions usually requires an increase in manual exposure factors?
a. Ankylosing spondylitis
c. Spina bifida
d. Spondylolisthesisa. 1-1.5" above iliac crestWhere is the CR for an AP projection of the L-spine w/ a 11x14" IR?
a. 1-1.5" above iliac crest
b. Xiphoid tip
d. between ASIS and pubisRightWhich set of zygapophyseal joints of the L-spine is best demonstrated with an LAO position?d. 50* from plane of tableHow much rotation of the spine is required to demonstrate the zygapophyseal joint space between L1-2?
a. 20-30* from plane of table
b. 10-15* from plane of table
c. 40* from plane of table
d. 50* from plane of tablewide pelvis, narrow thorax (aka lotta junk in da trunk)Describe the body build that may require CR angulation to open the intervertebral joint spaces w/ a lateral projection of the L-spine, even if the patient has some support under the waist.b. 5-8* caudadWhat type of CR angulation should be used for the lateral L5-S1 projection if the waist is NOT supported?
a. CR perpendicular
b. 5-8* caudad
c. 10-15* cephalad
d. 3-5* cephalada. 35* cephaladWhat type of CR angulation should be used for an AP axial projection for L5-S1 on a patient with vagina?
a. 35* cephalad
b. 20* cephalad
c. 5-8* caudad
d. CR perpendicular to IRa. ASISWhere is the CR centered for an AP axial projection of the L5-S1?
b. between the ASIS & pubis
c. iliac crest
d. pubisTrueTrue/False: The center ionization chamber should be used when using AEC for either a lateral L-spine or a lateral L5-S1 projection.PA, Ferguson methodWhich projection or method is designed to demonstrate the degree of scoliosis deformity between the primary and compensatory curves as part of a scoliosis study?hyperextension & hyperflexion lateral projectionWhich projections are designed to measure anteroposterior movement at the site of a spinal fusion?b. 2" superior to pubisWhere is the CR for an AP projection of the sacrum?
a. iliac crest
b. 2" superior to pubis
c. pubislead mat & collimationWhat 2 things can be done to reduce the high amounts of scatter reaching the IR during a lateral projection of the sacrum & coccyx?reduce gonadal doseWhy should a single, lateral projection of Dan's sacrum & coccyx be performed rather than seperate laterals of his sacrum & coccyx?c. 1000-1500 mradThe skin dose on a lateral sacrum and/or coccyx projection on an average-size patient is in the ______range.
a. 200-500 mrad
b. 500-700 mrad
c. 1000-1500 mrad
d. 1500-2000 mradrotation to the patient's right.A radiograph of an AP projection of the L-spine reveals that the SI joints are not equidistant from the spine. The right ala of the sacrum appears larger, and the left SI joint is more open than the left. Which ridiculous positioning error is evidient on this radiograph?decrease rotation of the spineA radiograph of an LPO projection of the L-spine reveals that the downside pedicles are projected toward the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies. What must be done in a heartbeat to correct this error before you re-expose your patient to more radiation?insufficient cephalad CR angle or angled the wrong wayAn AP projection of the sacrum reveals that the sacrum is foreshortened & the foramina are not open. What wrong ?lateral (may include a coned down spot AP/PA & lateral of the L3 region)Situation: A patient with a possible compression fracture of L3 enters the ER. Which projection of the L-spine best demonstrates the extent of this injury?AP, Lateral, L5-S1 spot & right and left 30* oblique positionsSituation: A patient w/ a clinical history of spondylolisthesis of the L5-S1 region comes to the radiology dept. What basic & special projections should be included in this study? (Hint: If the obliques are included, how much spine rotation should be used?)decrease rotation for oblique to 25-30* & CR @ upside of SI jointSituaion: A study of the SI joints demonstrates that the joints are not open and the upper iliac wings are nealy superimposing the joints. The tech performed 35* RPO & LPO positions w/ a perpendicular CR. What will Audrey do during the repeat exposure to open the joints?b. intervertebral disksThe ___________ between inferior lumbar vertebrae are common sites for injury and pathologic processes.
b. intervertebral disks
c. transverse processes
d. articular processesintervertebral foraminaThe __________ are situated at 90 degrees to the midsagittal plane.a. pars interarticularisThe portion of each lamina between the superior and inferior articular processes is the _______.
a. pars interarticularis
c. intervertebral disks
d. articular processesc. 50The zygapophyseal joints of the upper lumbar vertebrae are nearer ___ degrees from the midsagittal plane.
d. 60b. 30The zygapophyseal joints of the lower lumbar vertebrae are nearer ___ degrees from the midsagittal plane.
d. 60b. obliqueThe pars articularis is radiographically demonstrated on the _______ view of the lumbar spine.
c. laterala. inferiorly, anteriorlyThe apex of the sacrum is pointed _______ and ______.
a. inferiorly, anteriorly
b. inferiorly, posteriorly
c. superiorly, anteriorly
d. superiorly, posteriorlypelvic sacral foraminaThere are 4 sets of _________ that transmit nerves and blood vessels.alaeThe _____ of the sacrum are large masses of bone lateral to the first sacral segment.sacral canalPosterior to the body of the first sacral segment is the opening to the _________, which is a continuation of the vertebral canal and contains certain sacral nerves.superior articular processesThe two ____________ of the sacrum form zygapophyseal joints with the inferior articular processes of the fifth lumbar vertebraemedian sacral crestThe ____________ is formed by fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae.auricular surfaceThe sacrum articulates with the ilium of the pelvis at the _________.a. sacral hornsThe _________ are small tubercles that represent the inferior articular processes of the sacrum.
a. sacral horns
b. superior articular process
c sacral canal
d. promontoryhorns of the coccyxThe sacral horns project inferiorly and posteriorly to articulate with the __________.transverse processesThe most superior segment of the coccyx has two lateral projections called _________.posteriorlyThe long axis of the sacrum is angled ______.greaterThe posterior angle of the sacrum is ________ on a female vs. a male.malesThe forward curvature of the coccyx is more pronounced in _______.thoracic, 70The reason the upper lumbar vertebrae require more obliquity is because they take on the shape characteristics of the _______ vertebrae that require ____ degrees on obliques.d. 50The doctor says visualization of the zygapophyseal joints of L1-L2 is most important. What degree of obliquity would you use?
d. 50b. 30The doctor says visualization of the zygapophyseal joints in the L5-S1 area is most important. What degree of obliquity would you use?
d. 5011, sacrumT__ to distal ____ should be visualized on an AP L-spineSI joints, spinous processesNo rotation of an AP L-spine is evident by symmetry of the _______ and "teardrop" _________.SI joints, psoasLateral margins of collimated field of the AP L-spine should include the ______ and the _____ muscles.iliac crest, ASISCR placement for the L5-S1 spot is 1.5" inferior to _______ and 2" posterior to ______.interiliac planeWhen acquiring the lateral L5-S1, you want the CR to be parallel to the __________.30, 35, cephalicOn an AP axial projection of L5-S1 there is ___ degree angle for males and a ___ degree angle for females both in a _______ direction.