73 terms

History Chapter 5

Ottawa Hills Sophomore History
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Terms in this set (...)

"Great American Desert"
farmers turned the plains from this into the "breadbasket of the nation"
greenbacks
U.S. issued almost $500 million of this paper money which could not be exchanged for silver or gold money because they were worth less than hard money
hard money
coins and paper money printed in yellow ink that could be exchanged for gold
Bland-Allison Act of 1878
required government to buy and coin at least $2 million-$4 million worth of silver each month
Oliver Hudson Kelley
1867 started the Patrons of Husbandry
Patrons of Husbandry/the Grange
an organization whose purpose was to provide a social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm families; started fighting railroads
Farmers' Alliance
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Mary Elizabeth Lease
lecturer sent by the Farmers' Alliance to educate people about farmers' hardships
Southern Alliance
included white Southern farmers; was the largest group
Colored Farmers' National Alliance
about 250,000 African American farmers belonged to this group
Populism
the movement of people; formed a party
Populist (People's) Party
formed in 1891; demanded reforms to lift the burden of debt from farmers and other workers to give them a voice in government
Panic of 1893
1893; Philadelphia and Reading Railroad went bankrupt, followed by others; government gold supply wore thin; people traded their money for gold; spread to Wall Street where stocks fell; silver plunged
"silverites"/bimetallism
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks; Democrats supported this
"gold bugs"/gold standard
a monetary system in which dollars would be backed solely with gold; Republicans supported this
William McKinley
1896 nomination for President by Republican Party to state its firm committment to the gold standard
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic nomination for 1896; combined gold and silver standard including unlimited coinage of silver; gave a speach at the Democratic convention
"Cross of Gold" speech
given by William Jennings Bryan at the Democratic convention where he was nominated for Democratic runner
*legacy of populism
1. a message that the laborers could organize and have political impact 2. an agenda of reforms, many of which could be enacted in the 20th century
Transcontinental Railroad
Union Pacific and Central Pacific combined to for this; major method of trade and transportation
land grants
Government gave these out to railroads as they expanded; ten miles on either side
Union Pacific Railroad
received public land for every mile laid; moverd westard from Omaha
Central Pacific
received public land for every mile laid; went eastward from Sacremento
Homestead Act
offer 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of household
exodusters
African Americans who moved from the post-reconstruction South to Kansas
homesteaders
settlers on the free land
Henry D. Washburn/Nathaniel P. Langford
asked Congress to help protect the wilderness from settlement; against frontier
Yellowstone National Park
1872; government created this first national park
Frederick Jackson Turner
believed that the frontier made America unique
dugout home
trees were scarce so people built these homes into hills
soddy
sod home; freestanding, made of blocks on prairie itself
homestead
dwelling that is usually a farmhouse and adjoining land
John Deere
invented steel plow (slice through heavy soil) in 1837
Cyrus McCormick
began to mass-produce a reaping machine in 1847
Morrill Act
1862; law erected to help create agricultural colleges by giving federal land to states
Hatch Act
1887; established agricultural experimental stations to inform farmers of new developments
"breadbasket of the nation"
new inovations enabled the dry eastern plains to flourish and become this
bonanza farms
enormous sing-crop spreads of 15,000-50,000 acres
mortgage
legally pledge property to a creditor as security for the payment of a loan or debt
extortion
illegal use of one's official position or powers to obtain property or funds
Great Plains
grassland extending through the west central portion of the US
significance of the horse in transforming Native American culture
horses led to hunting more efficiently and traveling farther and faster
"counting coup"
how Native Americans gained honor; touching a live enemy with a coup stick and escaping unharmed
shaman
men or women who showed particular sensitivity to the spirits became these medicine men or women
reservations
certain land set aside for Native tribes
Sand Creek Massacre
November 29, 1864; Cheyenne peacefully returned to Colorado's Sand Creek Reserve for winter; S. R. Curtis sent a telegram to John Chivington who attacked the reserve and killed over 150 people
John Chivington
militia colonel; sent by S. R. Curtis to attack in Sand Creek Massacre
Bozeman Trail
ran through Sioux hunting grounds; where Crazy Horse ambushed William Fetterman
Red Cloud
Mahpiua Luta; Sioux Chief; appealed to gov. to end settlement on the Bozeman Trail, but failed
Crazy Horse
warrior; ambushed William Fetterman on the Bozeman Trail
Captain William J. Fetterman
ambushed by Crazy horse in December 1866
Battle of the Hundred Slain/Fetterman Massacre
Natives/settlers name for when Crazy Horse and warriors ambushed and killed 80 men on the Bozeman Trail
Treaty of Fort Lorraine
1868; Sioux were forced into signing this treaty where they agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River
Sitting Bull
Tatanka Iyotanka; leader of Hunkpapa Sioux; never signed Treaty of Fort Lorraine; famous for battle at Little Bighorn River
Red River War
1874-1875; after 6 years of raiding, US Army herded people on to reservations and shot all others
General Philip Sheridan
Union Army veteran; ordered "to destroy their villages and ponies, to kill and hang all warriors, and to bring back all women and children" in the Red River War
Black Hills
miners began searching here for gold after Colonel George A. Custer reported there was tons; Native Americans inhabitted this
Colonel George A. Custer
reported the Black Hills had a lot of gold "from the grass roots down"
Battle of Little Bighorn
June 1876; Custer went for Sitting Bull's tribe, but they were ready; outflanked Custer, but were beaten later in 1876
assimilation
a plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture
Dawes Act
passed in 1887 by Congress; "americanize" natives; broke up reservations and gave some of the land to individual Natives, sold rest and was supposed to give money to Natives, but never did
Ghost Dance Movement
prairie prophet promised that if they did this ritual, their way of life would be restored; led to Sitting Bull being arrested and shot and killed
Battle of Wounded Knee
Seventh Cavalry round up 350 Sioux and took them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek; next day demanded Natives give up weapons; fight where 300 Natives were killed and left to freeze; ended Indian wars
longhorns
sturdy, short-tempered breeds, used for food
vaquero
first to where spurs; used to control horses
Chisholm Trail
major cattle route from San Antonio, Texas through OK and KA, started in Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas
where Chisholm Trail started
Frederic Remington
painter and scultptor best known for his romantic and spirited descriptions of the Western Frontier; used a single dominant color
long drive
overland transport; lasted about 3 months; used to move herds of cattle by cowboys
"Wild Bill" Hickok
scout and spy during the Civil war; violent man killed after a poker game; was in a Wild West Show
Calamity Jane
Martha Jane Burk; expert sharpshooter; dressed as a man; may have been a scout for Colonel George Custer; in a Wild West Show
Joseph F. Glidden
invented barbed wire which was used after the cattle frontier to keep cattle in their ranches
William F. Cody/Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
toured the country to perform mock battles and trick riding and roping