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Psychology ch 1-4 test

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Psychology
Combination of philosophy and biology
It is becoming more of a biology
Six major concepts
1.biological perspective
2.cognitive perspective
3.behavioral perspective
4.whole person perspective
5.developmental perspective
6.cultural perspective
Biological perspective
Chemical
Neuroscience
Rely on imaging through use of magnets to measure blood flow.
Cognitive perspective
Thought
Memory, reasoning
Compare brain to a computer
All memory is based on associations
The more emotional you are the moe you will remember
Innate
Genetic
Language
Behavioral perspective
Skinner believed that everything is learned
Skinner thought that you needed to find out what motivates someone for doing it
Skinner thought we didn't have free will
Whole person perspective
Psyco dynamic
Humanistic approach
Psycho dynamic
Freud
Most of humankind is guided by unconscience
Related to an iceberg
Early childhood has a big influence on you
Brought everything back to sex
Humanistic approach
Started in the 60s
Looked at the good in people
Everyone has something to offer
Carl Rogers
Maslow
Foundation on positive and free will
Developmental perspective
Means change
Heredity and environmental influence
Cultural perspective
Culture gender ethics
Most affective
Photographic memory
Study in Russia on subject (S) by dr. Loire
Remember everything
Could not block the noise and cannot shut it off
In the autistic spectrum
Senastesia
See music
Feel colors
Those with this condition that are not on the autistic spectrum are normally autistic
Objective
Computer
At what age are we thought not to be able to remember past
3
Processing of information
Encode
Storage
Retrieval
The human brain is limitless or limited
Limitless
Where a memories stored
In the cerebral cortex in different places.
What sets us apart from others one the food chain
Reptilian
Limbic system
Emotions
Two forms or attention
Selective
Divided
Selective
When you focus one something and don't hear things around you
Divided
All over the place and you don't hear things around you
Sensory
Things around you
Working system
Short term
Long term
Forever memories
Episodic memory
Highly emotional flash back
Flash bulb memory
Normal stress
Need stess
Distress
To high
Ustress
Good stress
Does our brain shut off
No
Memory practice
Chunking
Rehearsing
Strongest memory senses
Smell
Sound
Context dependent
Same spot where you learned something
Mood dependent
Most congruent
You remember things that happened in a specific mood when in that mood
Take them back to happy place in order to bring people to a happy mood
The literal meaning of the word psychology is the
Study on the mind
Dr. Jones is industrial/ organizational (I/O) psychologist Thus, she is most likely to do what?
Help companies develop questions to ask job candidates
One major difference between psychology ad psychiatry is
Medical specialty
Psychology is different from pseudoscience because of
It's method if using the scientific method ti test theories and hypothesis
Psychology and anthropology are classified as scientific because if their
Methods
The term hypothesis literally means
Little theory
A subject who is exposed to the study treatment is said to be in the _____________ condition
Experimental
If I performed a study in the 1980s, and you wanted to see if my findings are still current in 2008, you could simply ______________ my study today
Replicate
Alicia wants to understand the impact of peer pressure on adolescent behavior. She goes to a popular mall and observes the activities and interactions of a group of adolescents. Alicia is using
Naturalistic observation
Which type of research study would best be used ti study that shaped a notorious serial killer
Case study
A subject in an experiment that receives no real treatment would be receiving
A placebo
The American Psychological Association guidelines state that research participants must
Be debriefed after the study if the research involves deception
Some research questions cannot be answered using human experiments because
Some studies would be impractical or unethical
A psychologist who studies how hormones affect a persons behavior is using the____________ perspective
Biological
According to this perspective, the methods of science can be used to study the mind
Cognitive
A breakthrough in the scientific field of ____________ ultimately led ti the worlds first psychology laboratory
Chemistry
William James argued that consciousness is analogous to a
Steam
Gestalt psychology argued that perception is
A process in which the whole is more than the sum of the parts
A scientist who studies the strategies involved in playing a gave of chess is most likely to follow a ______________ approach to psychology
Cognitive
The key feature of behaviorism that distinguishes it from other approaches to psychology is that
Only observable behavior Is appropriate for study
____________ was an influential advocate of behaviorism
B.F Skinner
A _____________ psychology would be most likely to explain nail-biting behavior as resulting from an oral fixation and an unconscious, self-destructive tendency
Psychodynamic
The term 'psyche' means
Mind
The humanistic approach toward psychology emphasizes
The positive side of human nature
The ___________ perspective argues that other people have a large influence on our own behaviors
Sociocultural
________ refers to the tendency for each hemisphere of the brain to take control of different functions.
Cortical transmission
Damage to the ________ is the most likely explanation for a brain injury that has devastating effects on human action and personality.
frontal lobes
The action of grabbing your keys with your right hand is controlled by your
left motor cortex
Secretions from the thyroid gland control
metabolism.
The notion that we use only ____ percent of our brains is false and came about during a time when neuroscientists lacked not only the technology but had not figured out the functions of many coritical areas.
10
________ is the interdisciplinary field involving biologists, psychologists, computer scientists, and chemists.
Neuroscience
Which of the following did you NOT inherit from your parents?
Religious beliefs
Darwin's theory of ________ argues that evolution favors those organisms that are best adapted to their environment.
natural selection
Which of the following is true of Prozac?
Prozac can cause changes in sleep, appetite, and thinking
________ are biochemical substances that are released into the synaptic cleft to stimulate or suppress other neurons.
Neurohormones
Which of the following is true of nerve cell development?
Some nerve cells die during the first few years of life.
The are about 100 billion nerve cells in the adult brain.
The brain has excess neurons at birth.
Our brain can generate new nerve cells.
Because the human brain is born already programmed for language, we can say that language is a/an ________ behavioral tendency.
innate
Actor Christopher Reeve was paralyzed from the neck down because of accidental damage to his
spinal cord
The scanning device that makes highly detailed pictures from tissue responses to powerful pulses of energy is the
MRI.
Damage to the ________ would be expected to impair your ability to name three exciting news events that occurred after this damage to your brain.
hippocampus
The "master gland" is a term that refers to the
pituitary gland.
The central nervous system is comprised of all the neurons in the ________ and the ________.
brain; spinal cord
Endocrine glands secrete this group of chemicals into the bloodstream to affect target organs.
hormones
The ________ interconnects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
corpus callosum
Vision is processed primarily in the ________ lobes.
occipital
Which sensory system does NOT relay information through the thalamus en route to the cortex?
Smell
Which body structure was altered during the process of evolution which resulted in higher levels of cognitive functioning for humans?
adrenal cortex
A key goal of the Human Genome Project is to
D. determine the complete human genetic code.
Peter suffers damage to his left frontal lobe and loses the ability to speak, although he can still understand speech. Despite the permanence of this damage, he is able to recover some of his speech due to the ability of other parts of the brain to take over lost function. This phenomenon is known by neuroscientists as
plasticity.
Gazzaniga suggests that we think of the human mind as neither a single nor a dual entity but rather as a
confederation of minds.
The Skinner box was designed so that
animals could press a lever to receive food.
The descriptors "positive" and "negative," when used in reference to reinforcers, are synonyms for
"add" and "remove."
The notion that learning produces physical changes in the synapses of the brain is consistent with
. long-term potentiation.
The most effective form of punishment usually involves
penalties, such as loss of privileges.
________ are consequences that alter the likelihood of behaviors.
Rewards and punishments
________ reported that watching violent behaviors makes children more likely to behave violently?
Bandura
While studying ________, ________ discovered ________ conditioning.
digestion; Pavlov; classical
For Little Albert, his fear of ________ was interpreted as an instance of ________.
a white laboratory rat; conditioned fear
Food, sex, and water are considered examples of
primary reinforcers.
Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer sickened because of
habituation.
________ refers to the process of experience producing an enduring change in behavior.
Learning
Negative reinforcement involves
the removal of an aversive stimulus.
A practical use of aversive conditioning by John Garcia was to
dissuade wild coyotes from attacking sheep.
A punisher is an aversive consequence that
weakens the behavior it follows.
Using the Premack principle, once you have finished studying for your next biology test you should
do something you enjoy.
The idea that we can learn from seeing the actions of others is known as
observational learning.
Which of the following is an example of a rewarding consequence?
high grades
praise
money
food
The two main types of behavioral learning are
classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
In operant conditioning, behavioral change is brought about by the manipulation of
consequences.
Which of the following is true of punishment?
Punishment interferes with the learning of new and better behaviors.
Punishment must be used consistently in order to be effective.
Aggression is produced by punishment.
Punishment usually involves the application of an aversive stimulus.
Positive reinforcers ________ the likelihood of ensuing responses.
increase
An eye blink is an example of
a reflex.
________ refers to the condition in which media violence reduces emotional arousal while watching violence.
Psychic numbing
The term "reinforcer" refers to any condition that ________ a response.
follows and strengthens
Learning always occurs as a result of
experience
Our ability to retain encoded material over time is known as
storage.
Another term for eidetic imagery is
photographic memory
Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001, is an example of a/an
flashbulb memory.
If you are trying to remember the names of all the U.S. presidents, the serial position effect would predict that you will have difficulty
recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.
Because of the limited capacity of ________, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush-hour.
working memory
The physical trace that is the basis of memory is known as a/an
engram.
If you study for an exam on one day and then continue studying on the next day, you are using
distributed learning.
Suggestibility can cause us to
distort memories and create false ones.
Long-term memory is thought to have
an unlimited capacity.
Luiz is being asked to remember a series of the following 15 letters: FOXHOWLSWANTBUG. He finds this to be easier to remember as the four words "fox howls want bug," rather than 15 individual letters. Luiz has used a process known as
chunking.
The three memory stages, in order of processing, are
sensory; working; long term
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Question text

If I asked you what you ate for dinner on Saturday, it might be a difficult task. However, if I reminded you that you went to Outback Steakhouse with your mother and aunt, it may be easier to remember. Why is that?
You have been provided with retrieval cues.
By looking over the chapter outline, the summary, the Key Questions, and Core Concepts, you form the impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are later associated with this overall impression. This is known as
the whole method.
You have used maintenance rehearsal to access the memory.
recognition.
________ refers to the inability to form new memories.
Anterograde amnesia
The ________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall.
levels-of-processing
Two strategies that are useful in dealing with the limits of working memory are to
chunk and rehearse.
During the memory process of ________, we select, identify, and label an experience.
Encoding
When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for a brief period, the phone number is thought to reside within ________ memory.
working
A temporary failure to recall where you left your keys is most likely due to
absent-mindedness.
Elizabeth Loftus is best known for her work on
eyewitness accuracy.
Typically, information is held in working memory for about
20 seconds.
The key tasks of a memory system is to
encode, store, and retrieve.
Mnemonics are methods for
encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.