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IB Psychology: Paper 3 (Learning Outcomes)
Terms in this set (24)
Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data.
Qualitative: rich data that is highly descriptive (text)
Quantitative: used to extrapolate beyond sample tested (numbers)
Explain strengths and limitations of a qualitative approach to research.
Strengths: Rich data, good for investigating complex situations, and tends to be more experimentally valid if the individual studied remains in their environment
Limitations: Time-Consuming, tons of data to deal with so analysis can be problematic, and interpreting results can be affected by the experimenter
To what extent can findings be generalized from qualitative studies?
*Representative generalization - Individual studied is not representative of the population
*Inferential generalization - because individual is rare and unique we cannot extrapolate the findings to the general population
*Theoretical generalization - data may be used to generate a theory (inductive) or to confirm one (hypothetico-deductive)
Discuss ethical considerations in qualitative research.
-Informed consent (Genie)
-Protecting individuals from psychological and physical harm
-Anonymity and confidentiality must be maintained
Discuss sampling techniques appropriate to qualitative research.
- Random sampling = random
- Opportunity/convenience sampling = opportunity
- Stratified and quota sampling = categorical and quota
- Purposive sampling = most helpful participant
- Snowball sampling= tell your friends (less time and energy required)
Explain effects of participant expectations and researcher bias in qualitative research.
*Participants expectations - participant behaves in a way to please the researcher
*Researcher bias - beliefs affect interpretation of participant behavior
Explain the importance of credibility in qualitative research
Credibility is related to internal validity and how well the data reflects the beliefs/opinions/meanings of the participants
Importance of peer-review
Using other researchers' interpretations to validate conclusions
Explain the effect of triangulation on the credibility of qualitative research.
Method triangulation - using different techniques to gather data - could be qualitative and quantitative (e.g. IAT and observation to investigate racial bias)
Data triangulation - use data gathered from various qualitative methods (e.g. interview and observation to investigate prejudice)
Researcher triangulation - use multiple researchers to agree on interpretations (Bandura did this)
Theory triangulation - use several theories to analyze the data
Space triangulation - use more than one setting/culture
Some researchers argue you can never have an accurate account because of the nature of subjective experience
Fielding & Fielding argue that the purest data and subsequent explanation arises from one method
Example - single malt whiskey is pure and tastes better than a blended whiskey
Explain reflexivity in qualitative research.
Important that researcher is aware of his/her own beliefs so they do not affect the interpretation of behavior
Researcher must reflect on his/her own beliefs and attempt to separate them if they are not to affect the data
Willig's (2001) two forms of reflexivity
Personal reflexivity - values, beliefs, experiences, political faction, socioeconomic class, personal interest in the results can influence the research both professionally and personally
Epistemological reflexivity - related to how data was gathered, limited understanding of a particular group of people can restrict the amount of data gathered
Evaluate semi-structured, focus group, and narrative interviews.
Good for collecting data on socially sensitive subjects (e.g. sexual preferences, views on racism) because it is one-on-one
Should be less biased by researcher's preconceptions
Because it is an open-ended approach, participants can elaborate and clarify
The theme is chosen in advance so non-relevant material is avoided
Data analysis is time-consuming
One-on-one situation can be considered artificial which calls into question ecological validity
Discuss considerations involved before, during, and after an interview (sampling methods, data recording, traditional vs postmodern transcription, debriefing).
Here, apply the knowledge of the most significant methodological aspects of the study and compare them from before, during, and after the conducting of data.
Explain how researchers use inductive content analysis on interview transcripts.
- Look at interview transcript and identify themes
- Write out notesfor each emerging theme to then group and code the themes for similarities and frequency
- Goal is to get insight into individual's unique perception of an experience
- Read the transcripts over and over until themes emerge
- Identify and structure the themes
- Create a table to organize the themes and include quotations as evidence to support the themes
- sometimes contact participant to ensure proper interpretation
Evaluate participant observation
Become part of the group you observe,form relationships with group members, record data on what they say, how they interact, Be reflexive, Reflect on how you are interpreting data, Reflect on how you may be affected by joining the group
-Attempts to combine emic with etic approaches
-Can get detailed konwledge about a group of people or phenomenon
-Attempts to reduce researcher bias because researcher is not supposed to impose their views
-Problematic to record data immediately so there can be memory distortions
-Problematic to record data objectively since humans interpret situations in their own way
-Time-consuming and demanding physically and psychologically
Evaluate non-participant observation
Observe group from afar
Take notes on what they say and how they interact
Overt observation the participants are aware
But then participants know they are being watched and may be reactive and invalidate data
Covert observation the participants are unaware
May have to use deception but will reduce participant reactivity
Observe groups in natural conditions: Criminals in prison, Mental patients in psychiatric institutions
Can use cameras which can be hidden,Less likely to affect participant behavior,Less reactivity
-High ecological validity because people are observed in natural environment
-Collect data in situations where it would otherwise be unethical or irresponsible
-Unethical to remove psychiatric patients from mental hospital
Try and get researchers to agree
Researchers document how they arrived at their conclusions
Ethical concerns about observing people without their knowledge
Justify use of deception on ethical forms
Should not violate privacy of participants
when you are making it known to participants they are being observed
Evaluate focus groups
-Fast and convenient way to collect data from individuals concurrently
-Provides natural setting which can give ecological validity
-Can reveal cultural values and group norms
-Participants may not disclose all relevant information for fear of embarrassment or being judged
-Conformity can confound the results
-Ethical issues in conducting focus groups in non-free environments like prisons and nursing homes (informed consent, no freedom to choose)
Evaluate narrative interviews
-Good at elucidating complexity of individual experience because it shows how humans construct meaning in their lives
-Can be used for all kinds of people as it only requires everyday speech - education level
Tons of data to analyze which is time-consuming to transcribe and analyze
when you do not tell the participants you are observing them
Discuss considerations involved in setting up and carrying out an observation.
- Choosing which observation is appropriate
- Appropriate sampling
- Appropriate recording of data
- Ethical implications
- Researcher bias
- Establishing a rapport (debrief) with the participants
- Maintaining objectivity
- Carrying out post-observation interviews to clarify the observations.
Discuss how researchers analyze data obtained in observational research.
- Goal of observational analysis is to provide good descriptions of behavior.
- Share info with researchers and/or the participants to establish credibility.
- Attain transferibility
- Compare to current theories for match
Evaluate the use of case studies.
Intrinsic (phenomenon) or Instrumental (generalizable)
- rich data, high validity, can help construct or challenge theories
costly, invasive, may cause subjectivity due to relationship formed, not generalizable, cannot establish cause-effect or general application
Explain how a case study could be used to investigate a problem in an organization or group.
The case study approach is an ideal strategy to investigation a group since it provides an opportunity to combine different data collection methods. Also, the methods can bring out important data from the viewpoint of the participants, using a multiple sources of data. In-depth data allows for basis of more holistic review
Discuss the extend to which findings can be generalized from a single case study.
- Typically, case studies are specific to one person or group and findings are not very generalizable
- But..may be used for inferential generalization if findings can be applicable to similar settings and if the researcher provides an in-depth description of the phenomenon and the context
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