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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
United States History SOL
Terms in this set (193)
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution and wrote "Common Sense"
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
"Give me liberty or give me death"
(1732-1799) no political party. Virginian who began as a commander and chief in the Revolutionary war. Had no desire to become president but the people wanted a strong national leader. Set prescient for many things, including the two terms rule. Warned US against being involved in foreign politics.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Lewis and Clark
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
A Native American woman who proved an indispensable guide to Lewis and Clark during their 1804-1806 expedition. She showed the men how to forage for food and helped them maintain good relations with tribes in the Northwest.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
As president he opposed the Bank of US, did not allow individual states to nullify federal laws, was responsible for the Indian Removal Act, the "Trail of Tears". Created Spoils System
(1800-1831) American slave leader, he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. Called Nat Turner's Rebellion, the slave revolt was the most violent one in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed.
in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 people gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed.
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical abolitionist believed slavery must be viewed from perspective of blacks; demanded immediate emancipation of slaves w/o compensation to slave owners; full citizenship rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone
First to achieve a sustained, controlled flight in a powered airplane
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses. Built trusts and used money to influence government.
This man was one of the most powerful railroad leaders during the industrial revolution. This man is credited with using ruthless tactics such as forcing smaller owners to sell to him, as well as many others. By the time of his dearth in 1877, his companies controlled 4,500 miles of track and linked NYC to the Great Lakes.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
Secretary of State John Hay
ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes' acceptance from the major powers
created the Dollar Diplomacy
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist. The trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America.
1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944; Democrat; New Deal to end great depression (created an "alphabetocracy" of agencies): two parts: First 100 Days and 2nd New Deal; social security created under the New Deal, opposition from Supreme Court, so he tried "court packing" (people didn't like that), tried to maintain neutrality in WWII, but had ties to allies (Lend Lease Act, strong economic ties), 1941: Pearl harbor ("a date which will live in infamy"), US enters WWII, died in 1945 while in office
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. His pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
At the start of his reign, Japan was still a fairly rural country with a limited industrial base. Japan's militarization of in the 1930's eventually led to Japan's invasion in China and involvement in WW2.
US President who sent military advisors to Vietnam and decided that the "Domino Theory" would be America's philosophy and reason for entering the Vietnam War
President Harry Truman
The president who presided over the end of World War II (ordered droppings of atomic bombs); "New Deal liberal" -> favored direct government intervention into economy; "Fair Deal"; National Housing Act; ended racism in government hiring and armed forces; Taft-Hartley Act; NATO; NSC-68
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
1969-1974, Republican; Improved the relations with the Soviet Union and China and wound down the Vietnam War. The water gate scandal caused him to resign before he could be impeached
President John F. Kennedy
second youngest president, entered presidency as tensions of the Cold War increased; unable to get major initiatives through Congress due to conservative bloc; tax cuts (economic stimulation); reluctantly gets involved in civil rights; emphasizes Space Race (man on the moon)
(April 15, 1894 - September 11, 1971) led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; Democrat; signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
A U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 by Whittaker Chambers and prosecuted by Richard Nixon; convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
Senator Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
President Ronald Reagan
Limited power of labor unions; Involved in Iran-Contra Scandal, INF treaty. Iran-Iraq War, and reducing inflation rate; supply-side economics; more homeless; sharply increased military spending.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
George H.W. Bush
president during the Gulf War, ability to quickly bring the war to a conclusion while suffering relatively few casualties resulted in the second-highest approval rating of any president, 89%
William J. Clinton
President of the US, oversaw the creation of NAFTA, restored full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, lifted economic sanctions against South Africa after apartheid was lifted, oversaw NATO action in Yugoslavia
George W. Bush
Son of president HW Bush and the 43rd president of the US. He was elected in 2000 after the closest election in US history and launched a war on terror following the terrorist attacks on 9/11
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
was a civil rights attorney from Richmond, Virginia. His work against racial discrimination helped end the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Sandra Day O'Connor
The first female Supreme Court justice appointed in 1981
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was appointed by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice.
This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
first American to orbit the earth
First man on the moon
First American woman in space
Dr. Jonas Salk
Developed polio vaccine
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Treaty of Alliance with France
1778, in their first military treaty the colonies agreed to aid France in case of an invasion by England. Neither country would make peace with England until it recognized American Independence
Articles of Confederation
First governing document of US - created a WEAK central government; issues with trade - different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states
Constitution of the U.S.
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments. Written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the this would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. It was drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Virginia Declaration of Rights
a document drafted in Virginia in 1776 to proclaim the rights of men, written by George Mason & served as a model for the U.S. Bill of Rights.
Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
In 1786 (written by Thomas Jefferson) declared that men had total religious freedom, it helped shape the course that religion would take in the US, which was pluralistic and voluntary rather than state supported and monolithic.
It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility. (MANIFEST DESTINY- USA had the RIGHT to develop the land)
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
a law that repealed the Missouri Compromise, the law allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves if they would allow slavery.
Anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison; drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words btw supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Seneca Fall Declaration
A statement issued by the delegates to the women's rights convention of 1848 who proposed that women be given the same rights and privileges as men
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
America feared the spread of Soviet Communism in the US so immigrant entry to the US was severely limited, such as through the Immigration Act of 1924 that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890. The purpose was claimed to be "to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity". After the Red Scare of 1919, immigrants from Russia/Eastern Europe were deported and restrictions were put in place.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Anti monopoly law that specifically stated that unions could not be considered "combinations in restraint of trade" and therefore unions could not be prosecuted under anti-monopoly laws.
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a League of Nations.
Treaty of Versailles
(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Tariff Act of 1930 (Hawley-Smoot Act)
prevents importation of foreign made goods bearing a US registered trademark owned by a U.S firm unless the US trademark owner gives consent
New Deal (WP, AAA, FDIC, Social Security)
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Lend Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Eisenhower's Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
the policies of the first reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Knights of Labor
Led by Terence V. Powderly; open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they worked
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
American Railway Union
Created by Eugene V. Debs, it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s. The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike.
International Ladies Garment Workers Union
an organization of people that make ladies' garments. Their members went on strike in the years just before to the Triangle Factory Fire. Shorter hours better pay.Women workers worked to gain shorter hours and better pay in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Direct Election of Senators
Gave women the right to vote
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Battle that gave Americans victory in the war
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Brought American soldiers closer than ever to Japan. Japanese commited suicide, rather than surrender
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
The code name used by the United States and its coalition partners in waging war against Iraq in early 1991 to liberate Kuwait.
First slaves at Jamestown
Virginia House of Burgesses Created
French and Indian War
Revolutionary War Starts
Declaration of Independence Signed
1st Peaceful Transition of Presidential Power
War of 1812
America wins Mexican War
Election of Lincoln
Plessy v. Ferguson
US enters WWI
Stock Market Crash
Hitler Invades Poland
December 7, 1941
End of WWII
Brown v. Board
Castrol to Power in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
March on Washington
Civil Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
Persian Gulf War
Fall of USSR
September 11, 2001
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