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Music Intermediate 2 Concepts
SQA Int 2 Concepts
Terms in this set (82)
Unaccompanied choral/vocal singing.
Broken chords played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody. Classical composers such as Haydn and Mozart used this technique extensively in their piano music.
The elements of chance in music, where the players have some freedom as to the choice of pitch and rhythm, etc. No two performances are exactly the same.
Instruction given to string players to use a bow. This term might be given to players after a passage using pizzicato.
A song in an opera, oratorio or cantata with orchestral accompaniment.
No feeling of key, major or minor. Very dissonant. A feature of some 20th-century music.
A male voice whose range lies between that of Bass and Tenor.
In the key of C, the main blues scale uses the notes C, Eb, F, Gb, G, Bb, C.
Jazz style for piano, the left hand usually playing an ostinato while the right hand improvises freely.
a progression of notes or chords that gives the effect of ending a passage of music, musical punctuation.
A passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument. Performers used to improvise cadenzas themselves but eventually composers began to write them into the score. In a concerto the end of the cadenza is marked by a dominant 7th chord.
A small-scale oratorio for soloist, chorus and orchestra.
A German hymn tune. Written in four parts for soprano, contralto (alto), tenor and bass, some of these chorales were used by Bach in his oratorios and cantatas. Usually homophonic in texture.
Different progressions using the chords built on the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th notes of a major or minor scale.
1. A group of singers with several people to each part.
2. The music written for these singers.
3. The refrain between verses of a song.
1750 to 1810 approximately. The era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. (Extended definition - See Symphony, Concerto, Sonata form, Minuet and trio, Alberti bass.)
A passage at the end of a piece of music which rounds it off effectively.
Instruction given to string players to turn the bow over and to bounce the wood on the strings.
Compound Time Groupings
The beat is a dotted note which divides into three, eg 6/8 = two dotted crotchet beats in a bar and each beat can be divided into three quavers.
Notes which sound well when heard together. The opposite of dissonance.
Muted. Creating around half the sound normally expected on an instrument.
Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest; similar in meaning to polyphonic.
A melody played against the main melody.
A male adult voice whose range is higher than a tenor's. The strong and pure tone is produced by resonances mainly in the head. This type of voice was very popular until the end of the 18th century.
An American style of popular music derived from rural folk music. Features fiddle, banjo, piano, guitar and drums.
1. Term used to describe the effect of two notes being played against three (eg in piano music it might be groups of two quavers in the right hand and groups of triplets in the left).
2.The term is also used to describe the effect that occurs when the accents in a piece of music are different from those suggested by the time signature (eg the division of 4/4 time into 3+3+2 quavers).
Notes which seem to clash when sounded together. The opposite of consonance.
Also known as New Orleans jazz music, popular for ensemble improvisations and instrumental solos. Performed by a small group of players.
A long note followed by a shorter one or a short note followed by a longer one as in a Scots snap often used in a Strathspey.
This technique is achieved on bowed string instruments by bowing across more than one string at the same time, thus producing more than one note.
A method of tonguing in which the player rolls the letter r. It is used by wind players and is particularly effective for flute and brass.
A bass guitar with no frets; allowing the instrument more expression, closer in tone to a double bass.
Sliding from one note to another, taking in all the notes in between where possible
A type of ornament played as a quick note before the main note of a melody. Sometimes there may be a group of grace notes at the start of a phrase and this is particularly evident in bagpipe playing.
A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied.
Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts move together rhythmically.
A simple melody for use in church and homophonic in style.
A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase. In an imperfect cadence the second chord is the dominant V creating an unfinished effect. In the key of C the second chord of an imperfect cadence would be the chord of G.
A term borrowed from painting in which brief musical ideas merge and change to create a rather blurred and vague outline. Debussy was an important composer of this style. (Extended definition - Texture and timbral exploration were also important features, including use of whole tone and pentatonic scales, parallel chords and unresolved discords.)
Music from India which uses instruments such as the sitar and tabla.
The distance in pitch between two notes, eg C - F is a 4th.
1. When a musical shape is mirrored, effectively turning it upside down, a passage could be descending and then is inverted to become ascending in style.
2. An inverted chord is formed when a note other than the root is in the bass.
The music sounds in a major key.
Several notes sung to one syllable.
A female singer whose voice range lies between that of a soprano and an alto.
A development in the second half of the 20th century based on simple rhythmic and melodic figures which are constantly repeated with very slight changes each time.
A change of key.
Modulation to relative major
A change from minor to major key with the same key signature found three semitones higher, eg A minor to C major.
Modulation to relative minor
A change from major to minor key with the same key signature found three semitones lower, eg C major to A minor.
Using a device which reduces the volume or alters the sound of an instrument. Con sordino means with mute. Senza sordino means without mute.
A prominent solo instrument part in a piece of vocal music.
Usually a story from the Bible set to music for soloists, chorus and orchestra. It may include recitatives, arias, duets and chorus. It is performed without acting or stage design.
A note which moves between two notes of the same chord which are a 3rd apart. Passing notes are in the melody part between harmony notes on the beat.
A type of oratorio dealing with the story of the Crucifixion as told by the four apostles (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John). Text is in German and features chorales as well as recitatives, arias and choruses. See Oratorio, Chorale, Recitative, Aria, Chorus.
Short for pedal point. A note which is held on or is repeated continuously in the bass beneath changing harmonies. Very often the note held on will be the tonic (tonic pedal) or the dominant (dominant pedal). See Inverted pedal.
A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase. A perfect cadence is the dominant to tonic chords (V-I). In the key of C major, chords G-C.
The classical music of the highland bagpipe, always in theme and variation form. Solo playing.
Abbreviation pizz. An instruction given to string players to pluck the strings instead of using the bow. See Col legno, Arco.
Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance and which weave independently of each other.
A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas and oratorios to move the story or plot on.
The upper, middle or lower ranges of a voice or instrument.
A change from minor to major key with the same key signature found three semitones higher, eg D minor to F major. See Modulation.
A change from major to minor key with the same key signature found three semitones lower, eg C major to A minor. See Modulation.
A lively movement in triple time usually in ternary form and often found as the third movement of a symphony, sonata or chamber work.
A style of Afro-American popular music including elements of blues and gospel and conveying strong emotions. See Blues.
A vocal/choral composition in which each verse has the same music.
This effect occurs when a note from one chord is held over to the next chord creating a discord, and is then resolved by moving one step to make a concord.
Syllabic Word Setting
Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only. Compare melismatic.
Two Indian drums tuned to different pitches and often used to accompany the sitar.
A vocal/choral composition in which there is little or no repetition of the music.
Tierce de Picarde
The final chord of a piece of music in the minor key is changed to major.
Based on a key. The tonality of a piece may be major or minor. Compare Atonal.
Trembling, quivering. See Tremolo
Term for the rapid up-and-down movement of a bow on a stringed instrument creating an agitated, restless effect. The term also describes rapid alternation of two different notes at least a 3rd apart played on piano, strings or wind instruments.
Trill - Rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes. Classified as an ornament
Three equal-value notes within one beat.
Twelve String Guitar
A guitar which is double strung, ie two strings per pitch.
When the main theme or tune is developed, perhaps by adding extra notes. It may change from major to minor or vice versa, changing harmony, rhythm, time signature, move the theme to the bass, etc.
A very slight wavering in pitch which brings warmth to the tone.
A scale containing no semitones but built entirely on whole tones. Debussy used the whole-tone scale in some of his pieces which were influenced by Impressionism. See Impressionist
In vocal works the music illustrates the word or phrase, eg the words running down might be illustrated by a descending scale.
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