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liver function tests (LFTs)

Tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum.

stool culture

Test for microorganisms present in feces.

stool guaiac or Hemoccult test

Detection of occult (hidden) blood in feces.

lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema)

X-ray images of the colon and rectum obtained after injection of barium into the rectum.

upper gastrointestinal series

X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth.


X-ray examination of the biliary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts.

computed tomography (CT)

Imaging technique in which a series of x-ray films are obtained to visualize internal organs in multiple views including in cross section.

abdominal ultrasonography

Sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body

liver scan

Image of the liver after injecting radioactive material into the blood stream

gastric bypass

Reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy)

gastrointestinal endoscopy

Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope


Visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen with a laparoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen

liver biopsy

Removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic visualization

nasogastric intubation

Insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach

paracentesis (abdominocentesis)

Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen

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