Terms in this set (399)
Tidal Volume (TV)
Air breathed in/out without conscious effort
Reserve Volume (RV)
Air that can be inhaled/exhaled with max effort
Vital Capacity (VC)
Air that can be exhaled after max inhalation = TV + ITV + ERV
Residual Volume (RV)
Air in lungs after max exhalation
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
= VC + RV
Air breathed in one min. without conscious effort = TV x (breaths/minute)
Lung capacity is measured using it, measures how fast and how much air you breathe out
Diagnose respiratory problems and council patients and provide treatment
Bronchial tubes are inflamed, irritated membrane swells and blocks air flow
The aveoli are destroyed, causes shortness of breath, smoking is the primary cause
There's uncontrolled growth of tissue, persistent coughing is common sign, main cause is smoking
Environmental triggers cause inflammation or tightening of bronchial tubes and/or excess mucus production, blocking air flow
It should be concise, targeted to the specific job and should list education, professional qualifications and relevant experiences in a reader-friendly format
Why do we need oxygen
Oxygen is needed for cell respiration and energy metabolism
The urinary system helps maintain fluid homeostasis (blood volume) in the body.
The kidneys assist in vitamin D production, maintain blood calcium levels, control extracellular fluid volume and composition (lymph fluids) and assist in control of pH of internal environment. They filter 20% of blood pumped by the heart.
How is urine created?
Urine is created in the kidneys and then passes through the ureters into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until the body is ready to release it, at which point a sphincter muscle relaxes and the urine passes out of the body through the urethra.
What is the function of the kidneys?
The kidneys receive blood through the renal artery, process it, and return the processed blood to the body through the renal vein. The kidneys also make a protein (BMP-7) that stimulates bone growth. The renal capsule is a membrane that protects the organ. The cortex is the lightly colored outer region and the medulla is the darker colored inner region. The renal pelvis collects the urine that has formed and directs it into the ureter.
How does the kidney form urine?
The kidneys filter 20% of the plasma and non-cell parts of blood, reabsorbing the components the body needs back into the blood and secreting the unwanted portions. Unwanted materials turn into filtrate (urine) in the nephrons and leave the body. No red blood cells get filtered out, so there should never be blood in the urine.
The nephron is the basic filtering unit of the kidney and there are about a million of them in each kidney. They filter every bit of blood about 20-25 times a day.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin)
ADH is made by the anterior pituitary. ADH stimulates re absorption of water within the nephron and constriction of vessels (raising blood pressure).
Aldosterone is made by the adrenal glands (adrenal cortex). Aldosterone promotes sodium and water re absorption in nephrons.
ADH and Aldosterone
Both are hormones that promote fluid retention, thereby increasing blood volume and pressure (act in repose to situations like dehydration or high salt levels in blood.)
Urinary System Labeled
freely, as needed
twice a day
every 4 hours
four times a day
every other day
three times a day
i, ii, iii, or iiii
the number of doses (1, 2, 3, or 4)
tablespoon (15 ml)
teaspoon (5 ml)
What role do joints play in the human body?
Joints are the places where two bones meet and allow movement and flexibility.
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
Any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries.
Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity
A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters.
A chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles.
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body.
Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons
The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute, Changes in cardiac output often signal disease of the heart.
The movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body.
Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself
A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute
Peripheral artery disease
A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm.
Peripheral vascular disease
Vascular disease affecting blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities.
The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in the systemic circulation
A regularly recurrent wave of distension in arteries that results from the progress through an artery of blood injected into the arterial system at each contraction of the ventricles of the heart.
A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons
ankle brachial index
The ABI is a painless measurement that evaluates the circulation in your legs.
The passage of arterial blood from the left atrium of the heart through the left ventricle, the systemic arteries, and the capillaries to the organs and tissues that receive much of its oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide and the return of the carbon-dioxide carrying blood via the systemic veins to enter the right atrium of the heart and to participate in the pulmonary circulation
A bodily structure (as the mitral valve) that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only.
An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein of the legs.
Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart and have thinner walls than the arteries and often valves at intervals to prevent reflux of the blood which flows in a steady stream and is in most cases dark-colored due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin.
A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries.
Any of the minute veins connecting the capillaries with the larger systemic veins
What types of muscle help move blood around the body?
The heart is the primary muscle that helps move blood & is made of cardiac muscle tissue. It is responsible for the circulation of blood & all the materials in it.
Thin walled (one cell layer thick) & microscopic in size to allow exchange of materials, often have pores to allow movement of materials, main function is conduction gas exchange
What are varicose veins?
Varicose veins are big, twisty veins near the skin's surface that are caused by weakened valves. When the valves don't work (keep blood moving), blood collects in the veins and the pressure builds up, causing them to become weak, large and twisted.
Why don't we ever hear about varicose arteries?
Arteries don't do this because they have higher pressure in them & therefore do not need valves to keep the blood moving.
Carry oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body.
Thick, elastic muscle layer that can handle high pressure of the blood flowing through the arteries.
Arteries are red blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood (with the exception of the pulmonary artery).
Carry deoxygenated blood from various parts of the body to the heart.
Thin, elastic muscle layer with semilunar valves that prevent the blood from flowing in the opposite direction.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.
Veins carry deoxygenated blood (with the exception of pulmonary veins).
This is the artery that runs across the ventral side of the heart, nourishing the cardiac tissue itself
Carry blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to pick up oxygen
Superior Vena Cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body (arms and head) back to the heart
Inferior vena cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body (abdomen and legs) back to the heart
Carry newly oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium
Stroke volume is how much blood is pushed out by the left ventricle with each beat.
How does an increased or decreased cardiac output impact the body?
Normal cardiac output is needed to move oxygen and nutrients to all the body's tissues. If a person's cardiac output is lower than normal, the tissues can suffer or blood pressure can become unhealthy. An increased cardiac output from exercise can help strengthen the heart.
What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is a measure of how fast the molecules in blood are hitting the walls of the arteries. It increases with increased blood volume & with increased heart rate.
How can the measurement of blood pressure in the legs be used to assess circulation?
The blood pressure in the legs can be taken to measure how well blood is circulating to those limbs. To take the pressure, a person listens to the pulse in that region.
Why can smoking lead to peripheral artery disease?
Smoking raises the risk of atherosclerosis and therefore the risk of PAD. It's thought to do so by damaging the endothelium (innermost layer of the artery), which allows plaque to build up on the artery walls.
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen
When you have an intense workout is it aerobic or anaerobic?
The more intense an activity and the closer it is to your maximum work output, the greater the amount of energy that is derived from anaerobic sources as opposed to aerobic energy systems used with sub-maximal activities.
Any of a group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone, are used medically especially to promote tissue growth, and are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve endurance
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it, It uses a substance called creatine phosphate (CP) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is located in our muscles and is the body's main energy source, allowing us to move and function
What is the body's long term energy source?
The body's long-term energy source is aerobic in nature, meaning the presence of oxygen is necessary. This energy system relies on the chemical breakdown of muscle glycogen, blood glucose, plasma-free fatty acids and stored intramuscular fats to produce ATP.
A technique for temporarily improving athletic performance in which oxygen-carrying red blood cells previously withdrawn from an athlete are injected back just before an event
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
A compound of creatine and phosphoric acid that is found especially in vertebrate muscle where it is an energy source for muscle contraction
A hormonal substance that is formed especially in the kidney and stimulates red blood cell formation
A highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of subunits; functions as a compact store of glucose molecules in liver and muscle fibers
An organic acid present in blood and muscle tissue as a product of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose and glycogen
Inability of muscle to maintain its strength of contraction or tension; may be related to insufficient oxygen, depletion of glycogen, and/or lactic acid buildup
What is the connection between power and movement in the body?
Movement requires power (fueled by energy). The
energy comes from cellular respiration. Respiration
can be aerobic ("with oxygen"—the source of long term
energy) or anaerobic ("without oxygen"—the source of
short term energy).
Muscles use creatine phosphate to make energy for
8-10 seconds. An enzyme (creatine kinase) breaks
the ATP into ADP, releasing energy & the ADP is
quickly recharged back into ATP.
Glycogen-Lactic Acid System
Muscles store carbs as glycogen (chains of glucose)
and can use anaerobic espiration to turn glycogen
into glucose and then convert the glucose into ATP
and lactic acid. The process is slower, but longer
lasting than the Phosphagen system. The lactic acid
builds up and makes muscles sore (causing muscle
After about 2 minutes of exercise, the body is able to get oxygen to the muscles so that glucose can be fully broken down aerobically. The glucose can come from these places: 1) glycogen in muscles 2) glycogen in the liver 3) absorption of glucose from food in the intestine. After "hitting the wall" (depleting all glucose reserves), the body switches to burning fat reserves. When all fat is exhausted, the body can break proteins into amino acids & convert them into ATP. It works slower than the other processes, but is extremely long-lasting.
Absorbs glucose through intestines and releases stored glucose from liver
Brings in steady supply of oxygen needed to combust glucose
Carries O2 & glucose to the cells to be converted into energy within the mitochondria
What are performance enhancing drugs?
Performance enhancing drugs are artificial ways of making the body function better during competition.
Why should certain performance-enhancing drugs be
banned from athletic competition?
These drugs can make for an "unleveled playing field" & some can harm health (steroids). Not everyone agrees that they should be banned however.
What is muscle fatigue?
Muscle cells rely upon a flow of electricity from the brain. It tells them to contract by signaling the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium. Muscle fatigue is when the muscles can't generate force. Muscles can also fatigue when there's a lack of oxygen, water, vitamins or nutrients or when there's a build-up of lactic acid.
How are we able to overcome muscle fatigue?
Nerves are typically able to provide the necessary signals, but after a time of maximum contraction (such as strength training), the nerve's signal reduces in frequency and contraction is reduced. There's no pain, but the muscle seems to no longer listen to the brain & sometimes moves backwards. Continued strength training can increase the nerve's ability to sustain high
frequency signals for longer time periods, helping a person overcome muscle fatigue.
What are the function of skin?
Protection- It is is the first defense against pathogens.
Sensation- It alerts the body of danger through the sensation of pain.
Temperature Regulation- It insulates us to maintain our internal temperature. It also allows us to lose or retain heat, mainly by shifting the diameter of the blood vessels in the skin.
An insoluble fibrous protein of vertebrates that is the chief constituent of the fibrils of connective tissue (as in skin and tendons) and of the organic substance of bones
A protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers.
A hormone produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception .
Any of various sulfur-containing fibrous proteins that form the chemical basis of epidermal tissues (as hair and nails) and are typically not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract.
Any of various black, dark brown, reddish brown, or yellow pigments of animal or plant structures (as in skin and hair).
What types of tissue make up the layers of the skin?
The skin is made of epithelial ("having the nature of covering a surface") tissue. The top layer is the epidermis ("top skin")—which is neither sensitive nor vascular—and the next layer is the dermis ("skin"). It is also referred to as the mesoderm ("middle skin") and is very sensitive. Below that is the hypodermis ("below the skin"). The blood vessels penetrate the hypodermis and dermis. The hypodermis has fat tissue, blood vessels & connective tissue. The hair follicles begin in the hypodermis & the tips of the hair extend beyond the epidermis. Collagen and elastin are proteins found in the dermis. Together, they give the skin its smooth structure & make the skin look young. Keratin ("horny") is a fibrous protein that is part of the epidermis & the main component of hair.
Sweat glands begin in the superficial hypodermis and extend through the dermis and empty out of the epidermis. They are exocrine ("secrete outside") glands & the primary function of most humans sweat glands is to cool the body (eccrine glands, found all over). Humans also have larger apocrine sweat glands in their
armpits and perianal regions (i.e. crotch). They secrete an oily, milky substance that coats hair so odor-causing bacteria can grow on it. All sweat glands have specialized myoepithelial cells ("muscle covering surface") that help to squeeze the glands and push out the secretions & they are controlled by the nervous
system & hormones from the endocrine system.
The sebaceous ("full of fat") glands begin in the hypodermis and empty through pores in the epidermis. They are exocrine ("secrete outside") glands that secrete and oily/waxy material (sebum) to lubricate and waterproof skin and hair. Humans have the greatest
density of these glands on tier faces and scalps. The only place they do NOT exist in humans is on the palms and soles. Eyelids have special sebaceous glands that secrete tears (a type of sebum).
Skin changes over time due to exposure to
the sun's UV rays, which damage the fibers in
skin called elastin, that helps give skin its
flexibility. As elastin deteriorates, the skin
starts to sag and stretch and become unable
to go back into place after stretching. That
makes skin bruise and tear more easily & take
longer to heal.
Most wrinkles and spots are caused by sunlight. Sunlight speeds the aging process of skin & increases risk of skin cancer. Exposure to the sun causes skin lesions, tumors, wrinkles, freckles, discolored areas, yellowing & destruction of elastin and collagen
tissues. UV light from the sun is the #1 cause of skin cancer (tanning beds are just as harmful). Melanin is a natural pigment that the skin produces when exposed to UVB radiation. It helps disperse about 99.9% of UV radiation as heat, protecting the skin from skin cancer. That's why people with darker skin (more melanin) are at lower risk of skin cancer).
Bone marrow works to replace RBCs destroyed by burnt skin—blood transfusions may be needed
BP and blood volume drop, decreasing blood flow and
oxygenation—can lead to shock/death
Metabolism increases and the body starts to consume muscle mass
K+ levels become abnormal makes nerve transmissions
irregular (faster, slower or not at all)
Rate of breathing can increase from higher metabolism & edema—edema of throat can also obstruct the airway
Adrenalin secretions can raise body temperature &
System under strain from inflammation (due to damaged tissues)
Becomes less effective because 1st line of defense (skin) compromised
Intestinal lining increases absorption of nutrients to
support metabolism and repair cells
Kidneys increase reabsorption to compensate for lost
fluid (can damage kidneys)
Role of Pain
The survival purpose of pain is to alert the body to a risk of tissue damage so the person can take action to remove the risk (i.e. touching a hot stove—pull hand
away). The higher the risk, the greater the pain.
Processing of Pain
Pain is received by naked nerve endings (dendrites of
sensory nerves) & is often experiences as physical
discomfort (pricking, throbbing or aching). A person
typically responds by taking action to remove the
source of the pain. The brain secretes endorphins (a
type of hormone made in the pituitary gland) in
response to stress and pain. Endorphins can act in a
similar way to morphine, reducing perception of pain
as well as to feelings of euphoria and an increased
immune response. (May be responsible for "runner's
Risk from Lack of Pain
Acute (short term) pain is necessary to survival. If a human felt no risk from pain (i.e. touching a hot stove), he would take no action to remove the threat (i.e. pulling hand away) and would suffer more damage. There is not thought to be any survival benefit to chronic (long term) pain (i.e. cancer pain), however)
How does the skeletal system assist with protection in the body?
The bone marrow produces blood, including the white blood cells that are part of the immune system.
Bones also protect internal organs (heart, lungs, brain) from damage.
Bone tissue that contains few spaces between osteons; forms the external portion of all bones and the bulk of the diaphysis (shaft) of long bones.
Spongy (cancellus) Bone
Bone tissue that consists of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae; found inside short, flat, and irregular bones and in the epiphyses of long bone.
How does the overall structure of bone provide great strength and flexibility, but keep bone from being too
bulky and heavy?
Bone is stronger than concrete (pound for pound) and
stronger than any other natural material. Cells are
hollow and have paper-thin walls, giving bone its lightweight structure. Calcium and phosphorus give bone its rigid strength, but ~ ½ of bone mass is soft and alive, allowing bones flexibility to bend. Every bone cell is replaced every 7 seven years, keeping bone strong
What is an X-ray?
An x-ray is an invisible type of high energy radiation. Soft tissues are made of smaller atoms and don't absorb x-ray photons well. The calcium atoms in bone are larger and absorb x-rays better. That causes a
picture of the bones to show up.
Break in several pieces, splintered/crushed
Fragment is pushed down, typically due to a blow to the skull
Collapse of vertebra, often due to osteoporosis ("holes in bones") or tumors or to being ejected from an ejection seat
Complete break at right angle to bone axis, often from direct blow
Break has curved/sloped pattern, often caused by slanted blow
Caused by twisting force on bone, such as rotation to leg during skiing
Incomplete, bone is bent & partially broken, most common form in kids
Bone breaks through skin— greater risk of infection
Bone breaks, but doesn't puncture skin
How can damage to a bone affect other human body systems?
Fat tissue from the bone marrow can leak into the blood, causing fat embolism syndrome, which can cause lung problems and seizures. If the skin breaks (open fracture), pathogens can enter the body and cause an infection.
What is bone remodeling?
Bone remodeling happens throughout life and is also called "bone metabolism." It's the process by which
bone tissue is removed and new tissue forms (ossification). It increases after a fracture and is the method by which the bone heals. Remodeling is rapid early in life (100% replacement during first year of life) and then slows (10% yearly for adult). An imbalance in the process can lead to bone diseases like
Osteoblasts ("bone sprouts")
Osteoblasts form new bone tissue, to replace those
reabsorbed by osteoclasts— produce the organic part of bone (osteoid), made mostly of collagen protein, that
inorganic minerals crystalize around—many of them turn into mature osteocytes
Osteoclasts ("bone breakers")
Osteoclasts break down and reabsorb bone tissue—come from monocytes in bone marrow, release
minerals (calcium phosphate) and other stored materials (like growth factors)
Cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance.
A soft highly vascular modified connective tissue that occupies the cavities and cancellous part of most bones and occurs in two forms - yellow and red.
A polypeptide hormone especially from the thyroid gland that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma.
A growth of new bone tissue in and around a fractured area, ultimately replaced by mature bone.
A usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures (as some joints, respiratory passages, and the external ear) is replaced by bone during ossification in the higher vertebrates.
Low blood calcium
Glands in the parathyroid release parathyroid hormone (PTH), causing osteoclasts to break down bone matrix and release calcium ions into blood.
High blood calcium
C cells in the thyroid release calcitonin & that stimulates storage of calcium in bones
An integrated group of cells with a common structure and function
Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, bind structures together, form a framework, support for organs and the body as a whole, store fat , transport substances , protect against disease, help repair tissue damage
Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities, are widespread throughout the body, they form the covering of all body surfaces, line body cavities and hollow organs, are the major tissue in glands
Soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract, composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body parts, highly cellular and is well supplied with blood vessels, the cells are long and slender so they are sometimes called muscle fibers
The main component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity, responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities
stimulates muscle contraction, creates an awareness of the environment, and plays a major role in emotions, memory, and reasoning, cells in nervous tissue need to be able to communicate with each other by way of electrical nerve impulses
What is the purpose of the skeletal system?
The skeletal system performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive
Terms used to explain where one body structure is in relation to another.
Situated toward the front of the body.
Away from the body surface; more internal.
Situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point; located away from the center of the body.
Being or located near, on, or toward the back or posterior part of the human body.
A body part that is located below another body part.
A body part that is farther away from the midline than another body part.
A body part that is nearer to the midline than another body part.
A body part that is located toward the back of the body.
Situated next to or near the point of attachment or origin or a central point.
A body part that is located nearer to the surface than another body part.
A body part that is located above another body part.
Anatomical terms that refer to specific visible landmarks on the surface of the body.
Near the belly.
Anterior side of the elbow.
Of or relating to the arm, specifically the upper arm,
Cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna.
Below lumbar, the end of the spinal cord.
Top of head.
The edge of you shoulder area, clavical bone area.
The thigh area.
The general area of your hip region.
The butt-cheek area.
The groin area.
Relating to the nose.
The back of your head.
Posterior surface of elbow.
The knee area.
The foot area.
Area from top of hips to pubic bone
The posterior side of the knees.
Area above pubic organs.
Base of spine.
Breast bone area.
The appendicular skeleton is formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle, and the lower limbs.
The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, and the skull.
What region of the body is blood normally drawn from?
Blood is normally drawn from the anticubital region of your body.
A polysaccharide obtained from seaweed that is used as the supporting medium in gel electrophoresis.
The measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics (as fingerprint or voice patterns) especially as a means of verifying personal identity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
DNA base pairing
A with T and C with G
Separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
DNA fragments move during electrophoresis because of their charge. What is the charge of DNA fragments?
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Denaturation: DNA melts and opens into two pieces of single-stranded DNA.
Annealing: The primers pair up (anneal) with the single-stranded "template" (The template is the sequence of DNA to be copied.) On the small length of double-stranded DNA (the joined primer and template), starts copying the template.
Extension:DNA building blocks complementary to the template are coupled to the primer, making a double stranded DNA molecule.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.
What are restriction enzymes are derived from
How are DNA fragments separated during gel electrophoresis?
By the size of the fragment
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes).
Nucleotide pair bond found in DNA molecule.
What is the backbone of DNA made of?
Phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars.
How do PNS and CNS work together?
Motor output- muscle movement is most started in the CNS and then the impulses travel through the brainstem into the spinal cord and to the PNS to activate the neurons in the muscles that need to move.
What is genetic information coded by in DNA?
The sequence of nucleotides.
The part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum. The brain stem has many basic functions, including regulation of heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.
Central nervous system
The part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of the vertebrate forebrain; the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system.
A convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves.
A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
A division of a body organ (as the brain, lungs, or liver) marked off by a fissure on the surface.
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
The study of the conformation of the skull based on the belief that it is indicative of mental faculties and character.
A shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent gyri.
Carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning.
Processes sensory information that had to do with taste, temperature, and touch.
Responsible for processing auditory information from the ears (hearing).
Responsible for processing visual information from the eyes.
hunger, thirst, sex drive
cycles of consciousness thalamus processes all sensory information to cerebral cortex
Formation and storage of new memories
Processes associations between unpleasant emotions and memory for those emotions
Group of neurons working together to help plan and produce movement
Controls basic autonomic functions like circulation, breathing, digestion
A momentary reversal in electrical potential across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus.
Which of these statements is correct regarding the sodium potassium pump and action potential?
Three sodium atoms move out of the cell and two potassium atoms enter the cell
Carry signal long distances.
Pick up signal.
Nodes of Ranvier
Allow nutrients in, waste out.
Branch to meet other neurons.
Place one neuron connects to next.
Joint between neurons.
Chemicals that allow neurons to communicate with each other.
Pick up signals through senses; send info from PNS to CNS.
Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons; found in CNS.
Receive signals from CNS causing movement; in PNS receive info from CNS.
Bursts of electricity cause involuntary responses (seizures, odd smells, etc).
Cells that make dopamine die, the lack of this neurotransmitter causes problems in communication between neurons in the two brain regions that must communicate to allow smooth, controlled movements.
Genetic defect on chromosome 4 causes synthesis of abnormal protein- the protein disrupts function of certain nerve cells.
Brain cells die and dead cells can't communicate- communication breaks down, getting worse with time and eventually causing death.
The immune system attacks the myelin around nerve axes in the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves, causing nerves to be unable to transmit messages due to a buildup of scar tissue.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's)
Nerve cells waste away or die and can't send messages to the lower motor neurons. Movement becomes less and less controlled. Eventually the lung muscles cannot contract, causing death.
An automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse passing inward from a receptor to the spinal cord and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness and often without passing to the brain.
How do neurons convey information electrically?
Action potentials down axis of each neuron (Within each neuron).
How do neurons convey information chemically?
Neurotransmitters conduct signal between neurons.
How are electrical impulses created in the human body?
Na+/K+ pump keeps outside of membrane + and inside - by pumping positive ions out of the membrane, priming the membrane to carry charges
During an action potential, there's a sudden reversal of charge, carrying a message down the axis
Quick energy source
Long term energy source, cushioning of organs, makes up much of brain
Build & repair body tissues
What role does oxygen play in the human body?
Oxygen allows humans to metabolize (burn) fuel (food), creating energy. Every cell in the human body needs oxygen to survive. Cells turn glucose and oxygen into energy within their mitochondria, in a process called "cellular respiration." Without oxygen, we can't process food or make energy.
The automatic adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances affected chiefly by changes in the convexity of the crystalline lens.
The small circular area in the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light.
Any of the conical photosensitive receptor cells of the vertebrate retina that function in color vision.
The ability to judge the distance of objects and the spatial relationship of objects at different distances.
bends light rays so they can pass through pupil keeps foreign particles out of eye where refraction (light bending) mostly occurs
How does the eye focus on light
Light rays enter the eye through the cornea.
The iris works like a shutter in a camera.
After passing through the iris, the light rays pass thru the eye's natural crystalline lens.
Light rays pass through a dense, transparent gel-like substance, called the vitreous that fills the globe of the eyeball and helps the eye hold its spherical shape.
In a normal eye, the light rays come to a sharp focusing point on the retina.
The retina's functions much like the film in a camera. It is responsible for capturing all of the light rays, processing them into light impulses through millions of tiny nerve endings, then sending these light impulses through over a million nerve fibers to the optic nerve.
Any of the long rod-shaped photosensitive receptors in the retina responsive to faint light.
gives nutrients to eye and maintains pressure
can enlarge or shrink to allow more or less light into the eye
opening in the iris, grows or shrinks based on light levels
shortens and lengthens width to focus light rays (accommodation)
let's light pass through while helping eye keep its shape
captures light rays & processes them w/millions of nerve endings
send light impulses through >1 million nerve fibers to optic nerve
The deflection from a straight path undergone by a light ray or a wave of energy in passing obliquely from one medium (as air) into another (as water or glass) in which its velocity is different.
What is visual perception?
Visual perception is the combination of what we see and how we interpret it. Sight without a visual database is useless (no sense can be made) and a visual database without sight is also useless (no input).
What's happening - rays don't meet a focal point because of deformation of lens
Effect - blurry/imperfect image
What's happening - image comes to focus behind the retina -- more common with age
Effect - far-sightedness -- vision ok for distant objects, blurry up close
What's happening - image comes to focus in front of retina
Effect - near sightedness -- vision ok up close, blurry for distant objects (near-sighted)
What's happening - the lens cannot perform accommodation (changing shape) to focus light, occurs mostly with age
Effect - blurry vision
What's happening - cornea is shaped wrong
Effect - blurry vision
What's happening - the lens is becoming blurry
Effect - blurry vision
What's happening - the yes do not focus together
Effect - double vision
Visual acuity test
Read the Snellen chart from across the room to measure clarity of view (acuity)
Push a button when you see a flash to measure peripheral vision
Look through Phoroptor to determine which lens works best for each eye
Slit lamp focuses intense light on eye to determine abnormalities
Doctor holds eye open & examines with bright light (shows great detail and 3 dimensions)
Measure pressure needed to flatten part of cornea, tests for glaucoma
secreted by pancreas - regulates blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in sugar
GH (growth hormone)
secreted by pituitary - stimulates growth
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
secreted by anterior pituitary - stimulates maturity, including sexual maturity
secreted by pancreas and promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver.
secreted by hypothalamus - triggers pituitary gland to secrete TSH
secreted by pituitary gland - triggers thyroid gland to secrete T3/T4
secreted by thyroid gland - regulate metabolism
What should occur when blood sugar rises?
Insulin levels should increase as the pancreas sends a signal for the liver to store glycogen.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Ratio of weight (kg) to height (m) - used to determine whether a person is at a healthy weight
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Metabolism (total chemical reactions) while at complete rest. It is combined with a person's activity level to plan a health caloric intake.
adenosine triphosphate, the energy molecule used by our bodies to build up tissues (anabolism)
How is energy released from ATP and used to do work in the body
ATP releases energy by losing a phosphate group and turning into ADP (adenine diphosphate). The breaking of the bond gives off energy.
How does the release of energy occur?
The release of energy occurs in 3 steps:
(2) Kreb's Cycle
(3) Electron Transport
Oral cavity & salivary glands
Salivary glands are exocrine glands that secrete materials to lubricate & break down food. Salivary amylase is one of the enzymes secreted to begin the breakdown of starch.
A hollow tube found in both the digestive & respiratory system - allows the passage of food, water & air. A bolus is a soft mass of food formed in the oral cavity that travels down the pharynx.
Hollow tube, pushes food & water to the stomach using peristalsis.
Sac in which foods are broken down into nutrients, holds food while being mixed with enzymes to help with digestion
Liver & Gall Bladder
The liver makes bile needed for digestion & the gall bladder is a sac that stores it & passes it into the small intestine to help break down fats.
It secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine (digestive function), but also makes insulin to control blood sugar (endocrine function).
most digestion occurs here, absorption of nutrients
responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient (water reabsorption)
helps a reaction to occur more readily by reducing the energy required for the reaction to occur
starches and carbohydrates
starches and carbohydrates
Respiratory System Labeled
Movement away from body's midline
Movement towards body's midline
Movement at synovial joint in which distal end moves in circle and proximal end remains in one place
Moving bone around its own axis
Unbending movement around limb joint that increases angle between bones of limb at joint
Bending movement around joint in limb that decreases angle between bones of limb at joint
Bending foot down (pointing toe)
Bending foot up
What are the four main steps of bone remodeling?
Step 1 - Hematoma Formation Blood vessels that are ruptured during the break swell to form a mass called a hematoma. This mass forms between the broken bones.
Step 2 - Fibrocartilage Callus Formation New capillaries begin to form into the clotted blood in the damaged area. Connective tissues cells form a mass of repair tissue called a fibrocartilage callus. This callus contains some cartilage, some bone and collagen fibers and the combined mass closes the gap between the broken bones.
Step 3 - Bony Callus Formation The fibrocartilage callus is gradually replaced by one made of spongy bone. This new mass is referred to as the bony callus. Osteoclasts and osteoblasts move to the area and multiply.
Step 4 - Bone Remodeling Over the weeks and months to come, the callus is remodeled with the help of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The shape of the bones will gradually return to normal and there will eventually be little evidence of the fracture.
How do we breathe?
We take in air through our nasal cavity. It then passes through the pharynx (along with food) and through the larynx (voice box) into the trachea (wind pipe). The trachea branches into a left and right bronchus, which enter the left and right lung, respectively. The 2 bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles. The bronchioles get smaller and smaller, ending in 300-500 alveoli (the "hollow" sites of gas
exchange). The alveoli are wrapped in capillaries that carry oxygen away from the alveoli (to all the body tissues) and bring carbon dioxide to the alveoli (for removal from the
How does oxygen we inhale get to all of our cells?
The oxygen is carried away from the alveoli by the hemoglobin in the red blood cells to capillary beds that are found in all the body tissues. The capillaries ("hairlike") are tiny vessels where arterioles ("little arteries") meet venules ("little veins") & are the place where oxygen, nutrients and hormones get dropped off & cellular waste gets picked up and carried away.
Gas exchange is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide (the respiratory gases) move in opposite directions across an organism's respiratory membranes, between the air or water of the external environment and the body fluids of the internal environment.
Why does gas exchange occur
As air or water nears the respiratory membrane, the oxygen concentration on the outside of the membrane is higher than on the internal side so oxygen diffuses inward
The concentration gradient for carbon dioxide is in the opposite direction, and so net diffusion of carbon dioxide keeps it diffusing out of the body.
Pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs.
Terminal air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs.
How do muscles assist with movement of the body and of substances around the body?
Our muscles are what allow all movement of our bodies (and within our bodies). They help us involuntarily by
helping food move down the esophagus and into the stomach (peristalsis) and helping blood move through our
bodies (the heart is a muscle). They also help us move our bodies voluntarily from place to place
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
They are striated muscle fibers form the wall of the heart & function involuntarily
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
They are attached to bone, mostly in the legs, arms, abdomen, chest, neck and face. They are striated muscle fibers (lined under microscope) & attach to bone by a tendon. They hold the skeleton together and give the body shape. They are voluntary (we control them) and contract
quickly and powerfully), but they tire easily
Smooth Muscle Tissue
They are smooth (not striated) & are controlled automatically by our nervous system. They are also called ―involuntary‖ muscles. They make up the walls of the stomach and intestine to help break down and move food. They also line the walls of blood vessels. They take longer to contract than skeletal muscles, but also don't tire as easily
How are muscle fibers and membranes organized to form a whole skeletal muscle?
The epimysium ("upon muscle") is the outermost layer of connective tissue. The perimysium ("around muscle") is
made of connective tissue and forms casings for bundles of muscle fibers. The endomysium ("within muscle‖) is connective tissue surrounding each individual muscle fiber. Each fascicle is a small cluster of muscle fibers, with
endomysium between the individual fibers. Blood vessels run between the fascicles, bringing the tissue nutrients &
removing waste. Nerves also run throughout, controlling the movement of the muscles. Together, the network of
nerves and blood vessels are referred to as the plexus.
Explain muscle contraction
In order for muscles to contract (shorten and thicken), they must receive a message from the CNS to do so. The messages come through efferent neurons (nerves that
move away from the CNS). The sliding filament mechanism explains muscle contractions. Muscle fibers contain many myofibrils (―muscle fibers‖) that allow the muscle cells to contract. The myofibrils contain thick and thin filaments attached to the Z disk (Z line). Thick filaments are made of myosin protein and thin ones of actin protein. The two proteins can twist around each other, shortening the sarcomere during contraction. Tropomyosin and troponin are proteins that control how actin and myosin interact—when they contract and twist and when they unravel and relax. Afferent neurons send messages back from muscles to the CNS.
What role do calcium and ATP play in muscle contraction
1) Calcium ions cause troponin and tropomyosin to
shift, exposing myosin binding sites
2) Myosin heads connect with actin binding sites & move the thin filament, contracting the muscle
3) The ADP & P that caused the myosin heads to cock back are left behind during the power stroke 4) Introduction of ATP causes myosin heads to release the actin
5) ATP is broken down into ADP & P, causing myosin heads to cock back and prepare for another power stroke
How is the condition rigor mortis related to muscle contraction?
After death the muscle's membranes become more permeable to calcium ions. Those ions promote the cross bridges of actin and myosin, shortening muscle fibers. ATP is needed to release the myosin heads from the actin fibers and allow muscles to relax, but ATP reserves are quickly depleted, causing muscles to remain contracted. It can take 10 minutes to hours to occur, with maximum stiffness 12-24 hours after death. Eventually tissue decays and lysosomal enzymes leak and cause muscles to relax
What body systems function to protect the human body?
The immune system is the primary system that helps protect the body. The skeletal system supports the immune system by making immune cells within the bone marrow. The cardiovascular system supports the immune system by moving immune components through the body.
How does the structure of the lymphatic system relate to its function?
The lymphatic ("water") system is part of the cardiovascular system. It's made up lymphatic vessels that carry lymph fluid (recycled blood plasma with WBCs) toward the heart. It overlaps with the immune system & contains organs like the lymph nodes & tonsils. It makes and circulates lymphocytes (WBCs that are the main cells of the system) & the spleen, thymus and bone marrow are considered parts of the system. There are rounded masses of lymph tissue called lymph nodes ("water knots") that contain lots of lymphocytes and filter the lymph fluid. The lymph vessels empty into ducts that drain into veins.
What is an antigen
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and elicits and immune response
What is an antibody
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
Clumping of microorganisms or blood cells, typically due to an antigen-antibody interaction.
B lymphocyte (B cell)
A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity.
Alternate forms of a single gene that control the same inherited trait (such as type A blood) and are located at the same position on homologous chromosomes.
A usually clear fluid that passes from intercellular spaces of body tissue into the lymphatic vessels, is discharged into the blood by way of the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, and resembles blood plasma in containing white blood cells and especially lymphocytes but normally few red blood cells and no platelets.
Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph passing through the node.
Any of the colorless weakly motile cells that originate from stem cells and differentiate in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow), that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, that include the cellular mediators of immunity, and that constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.
A long-lived lymphocyte that carries the antibody or receptor for a specific antigen after a first exposure to the antigen and that remains in a less than mature state until stimulated by a second exposure to the antigen at which time it mounts a more effective immune response than a cell which has not been exposed previously.
A specific causative agent (as a bacterium or virus) of disease.
A diagram of a family tree showing the heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations .
T lymphocyte (T cells)
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.
How do circulating antibodies protect a person from receiving incompatible blood during a transfusion?
Antigens are found on the surface of blood cells and platelets and if the antigens trigger an immune response (happens if blood types don't match), producing antibodies to attack the antigens. This results in agglutination, which is a clumping of blood cells caused by the antigen-antibody interaction. Agglutination can be deadly, which is why it is critically important to know a person's blood type before performing a transfusion. Pedigrees, which show genetic inheritance, can be used to help predict a person's 2 alleles for blood type. Type O blood does not contain antigens, which is why people with
type O blood are considered "universal donors"—it won't trigger agglutination in others.
How does your body react the second time it is exposed to a particular antigen?
T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells) are the two kinds of lymphocytes. All lymphocytes begin in the bone marrow and then mature into one of these types, with T cells maturing in the bone marrow and B cells maturing in the thymus gland. B cells are like military intelligence, seeking out pathogens and sending T cells to attack. B cells make the antibodies that match to each antigen. T cells are like solders, binging to antigens and then releasing a protein that punctures the pathogenic cells, destroying them. Once produces, antibodies stay in a person's body, so if the same pathogen shows up again, the antibodies to attack it are already present and the person doesn't usually get sick (hence the beauty of a vaccine!).
What are the 6 types of joints
2. ball and socket
What are the three types of synovial joints
hinge, pivot, ball and socket
Type A blood
Antibodies: anti B
can give to: A, AB
can receive from: O, A
Type B blood
antibodies: anti A
can give to: B, AB
can receive from: O, B
Type AB blood
antigens: A and B
can give to: AB
can receive from: A, B, AB, O
Type O blood
antibodies: anti A and anti B
can give to: A, B, AB, O
can receive from: O
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