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Opposed the Constitution; did not like a strong central govt.

Land Ordinance of 1785

major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

Northwest Ordinance, 1787

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states

Shay's Rebellion

1786-1787 under the Articles of Confederation; Mass. landowners blockaded courthouses and burned records of debt.

Annapolis Convention, 1786

Meeting held before the constitution to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, design a U.S. currency standard, repay debts to Revolutionary War veterans.

1780's Depression

Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in unemployment

Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws

Believed in separate houses, and a govt. that reflected the will of the people


believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear, and need a strong government to keep them under control.

James Madison

Proposed the Virginia Plan, drafted most of the constitution

Virginia Plan

James Madison, two-house Congress, representation based on state population in one house, supreme court, president

New Jersey Plan

one-house, in which each state had equal representation, no supreme court, no president

Beard thesis

Charles Austin Beard wrote that Constitution was written to protect the economic interests of its writers and benefit wealthy financial speculators

3/5 Compromise

Slaves considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.

Slave Trade Compromise

The South's slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution-until 1810

George Washington

Established Presidential traditions like the cabinet, and a two term limit

Alexander Hamilton

A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank

Thomas Jefferson

A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton's ideas.

Attorney General Randolph

delegate to Continental Congress and Governor of Virginia, submitted the virginia Plan, U.S. Attorney General, succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State.

George Mason

American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)


stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution

Ben Franklin

delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies.

Connecticut Compromise

Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators

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