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Organizations Exam #3
Terms in this set (109)
permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience
what are the two types of learning
explicit and tacit
learning that is easy to communicate and teach
learning that is difficult to communicate and is gained with experience
how do employees learn?
reinforcement and observation
what is positive reinforcement?
where consequence is added to get the positive outcome
what is negative reinforcement?
where consequence is removed to increase a desired outcome
what is punishment?
where consequence is added to decrease an unwanted behavior
what is extinction?
where consequence is removed to decrease an unwanted behavior
learner focuses attention on the critical behaviors exibited by the model
learner must remember the behaviors of the model once the model is no longer present
learner must have the appropriate skill set and be able to reproduce the behavior
learner must view the model of receiving reinforcement for the behavior and then receive it themselves
methods of goal orientation
learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid
the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem
what has a significant impact on decision making?
decisions based on intuition or gut feeling
decisions based on the rational decision making model
common reasons for making bad decisions:
limited information, faulty perceptions, faulty attributions, and escalation of commitment
heuristics and decision-making biases that lead to faulty perceptions
availability, anchoring, framing, representativeness, contract, recency, and ration bias
the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action
escalation of commitment
how does learning impact job performance?
learning has a moderate positive effect on Performance. employees who gain more knowledge and skill tend to have higher levels of task performance. not much is known about the impact on learning on citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior
how is learning related to organizational commitment?
learning has a weak positive effect on commitment. employees who gain more knowledge and skill tend to have slightly higher levels of affective commitment. not much is known about the impact of learning on continuance commitment and normative commitment
the relatively stable capabilities people have have to perform a particular range of different but related activities
capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving
types of cognitive ability
verbal, quantative, reasoning, spatial, perceptual
one of the most widely used measures of cognitive ability is what?
the wonderlic personnel test
what is the wonderlic personal test
50 questions in 12 minutes, a score of 20 is equivalent to an IQ of 100, which is average, a score of 10 indicates literacy
capabilites related to the management and use of emotions when interacting with others
what is extremely vital in jobs that require a lot of "emotional labor"
what are the four varieties of emotional intellignce?
self awareness, other awareness, emotion regulation, use of emotions
the ability of an individual to understand the types of emotions he/she is experiencing, the willingnes to acknowledge them, and the capability to express them accurately
the ability of an individual to recognize and understand the emotions that other individuals are feeling
the ability to quickly recover from emotional experience and control one's feelings
the ability of an individual to harness emotions and use them to improve chances of being successful in a given area
use of emotions
importance of physical ability varies according to the nature of the job such as :
strength, stamina, flexibility and coordination, psychomotor, and sensory
how is cognitive ability related to job performance
general cognitive ability has a strong positive effect on task performance. however, the correlation is higher for jobs that are more complex than average and lower for jobs that are less complex than average. The effects of general cognitive ability are near zero for citizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior
what is the relationship between cognitive ability and organizational commitment
general cognitive ability has no effect on affective commitment., continuance commitment, or normative commitment. smarter employees are no more or no less likely to want to remain members of an organization
two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose
how are teams different than groups
- a special type of group -interactions among member within teams revolve around a deeper dependence on one another than the interactions within groups. -interactions among teams occur with a specific task purpose in mind
what are the different types of teams?
work teams, management teams, parallel teams, project teams, and action teams
teams in which the members are geographically dispersed and interdependent activity occurs through electronic communications such as mail, instant messaging and web conferencing
what is a disadvantage of a virtual team?
teams vary in how developmentally mature they are
what are the stages of team development?
forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team
A theory that supports team diversity because it provides a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives.
value in diversity problem solving approach
A theory explaining that team diversity can be counterproductive because people tend to avoid interacting with others who are unlike them.
types of task interdependence
comprehensive, reciprocal, sequential, and pooled
exists when team members have a shared vision of the team's goal and align their individual goals with that vision as a result
exists when team members share in the rewards that the team earns
what is the team composition
member roles, member ability, member personality, team diversity, and team size
cognitive and physicial abilities needed in a team depend on
the nature of the teams task
what are different types of team tasks
disjunctive tasks, conjunctive tasks, and additive tasks
what are the three traits especially critical to teams?
agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion
these people tend to be more cooperative and trusting and have tendencies that promote positive attitudes about the team and smooth interpersonal interactions in teams
these people tend to be dependable and work hard to achieve goals
these people tend to perform more effectively in interpersonal contexts and are more positive and optimistic in general
the degree to which members are different from one another in terms of any attribute that might be used by someone as a basis of categorizing people
having a greater number of members is beneficial for what types of teams
management and project teams, but not teams engaged in production tasks
teams members tend to be most satisfied with their team when the number of members is
4 and 5
how is task interdependence related to team performance
task interdependence has a moderate positive effect on team performance. however, the correlation is higher in teams involved in more complex knowledge work rather than less complex work
how is task interdependence related to team commitment
task interdependence has a weak relationship team commitment. however the correlation is stronger for teams involved in more complex knowledge work than in teams involved in less complex work
reflects the different types of activities and interactions that occur within teams and contribute to their ultimate end goals
what team characteristics affect team processes?
member diversity, task interdependence, team size
getting more from the team than you would expect according the the caabilities of its individual members
getting less from the team than you would expect based on the capabilities of the individual members
causes of process loss
coordination loss (production blocking) and motivational loss (social loafing)
what are types of teamwork processes
creative behavior, decision making, and boundary spanning
reflects whether members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities
refers to the degree to which members make good recommendations to the leader
reflects the degree to which the leader effectivelt weighs the recommendations of the members
refer to communications that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team
involve communcations that are intended to coordinate task-related issues with people or groups in other functional areas
task coordinator activities
refer to things team members do to obtain information about technology, competitors, or the broader marketplace
an analysis of the team's task, the challenges that face the team, and the available for completing the team's work
mission analysis involves
refers to the development of courses of action and contingency plans, and then adapting those plans in light of changes that occur in the team's environment
involved the development and prioritization of goals related to the team's mission and strategy
involves keeping track of the team needs to accomplish its work
involves members going out way to help or back up other team members
refers to synchronizing team members activity in a way that makes them mesh eddectively and seamlessly
refers to things team members do or say that affect the degree to which members are motivated to work hard on the task
motivating and confidence building
involves activities that the team uses to manage conflicts that arise in the course of its work
conflict over content and goals of work
conflict based on interpersonal relationship
what are team states
cohesion, potency, mental models, and transactive memory
exists when members of teams develop strong emotional bonds to other members of their team and to the team itself
refers to the degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situation and tasks
refer to the level of common understanding among team members with regard to important aspects of the team and its task
refers to how specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory for the team
how are teamwork processes related to team performance
teamwork processes have a moderate positive effect on team performance. that aspect of team process has a stronger effect on performance for teams involved in more complex knowledge work rather than less complex work
how are teamwork processes related to team commitment
teamwork processes have a strong positive effect on team commitment. that aspect of team process has a stronger effect on commitment for teams involved in more complex knowledge work rather than less complex work
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of follower toward goal achievement
the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
types of power
organizational power: legitamate power, reward power, coercive power
personal power: expert power, referent power
leaders are better able to use their power to influence others when they have:
low substitutability, high discretion, high centrality, and high visibility
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others can be downward or lateral
leaders can use their power and influence in a number of ways including
navigating the political environment in the organization, resolving conflicts within the organization, and negotiation within and between organizations
actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self interests
the ability to effectively unerstand others at work and use that knowledge to influence other in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives
the five styles of conflict resolution can be view as a combination of two separate factors:
how assertive leaders want to be in pursuing thier own goals and how cooperative they are with regard to the concerns of others
a process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences
win-lose style with fixed pie, zero sum conditions
win-win style utilizing mutual respect and problem solving
what are the stages of negotiation
preparation, exchanging info, bargaining, and closing and commitment
Formal authority is the extent to which a manager can use the "right of command" to control other people.
The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.
The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishment to control other people.
The ability to control another's behavior because of the possession of knowledge, experience, or judgement that the other person does not have but needs.
The ability to control another's behavior because of the individual's desire to identify with the power source.
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