History Test 8

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Lee Harvey Oswald
Assassinated JFK on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, TX
James Rhodes
Ohio governor during Kent State shooting.
Ordered National Guard troops to Kent State
Harry Kissinger
Secretary of State under Nixon
Negotiates "Cease Fire Agreement"
Refugee from Nazi Germany"
Richard Nixon
Republican who served in House and Senate. California Congressman. Eisenhower's VP.
President in 1968 (eliminates LBJs "Great Society")
Ella Baker
Director of the SNCC.
Betty Friedan
President of NOW. Author of "Feminine Mystique" that said society prevented women from achieving their full potential. One of the first to write about equal rights for women
MLK Jr.
President of the SCLC. "I Have a Dream" speech. Backed by JFK.
Anne Moody
Protester in SNCC who went to be served at the "whites only" counter at Woolworth's. (refuses to leave until served/arrested)
Adalai Stevenson
Former Governor of Illinois. Denied JFK as his VP. proposed to end draft. Ran an add of stereotypical moms that offended all women. Anti-war campaign.
Viet Cong
Uniformless military of North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh.
Used tunnel warfare. Army of peasant farmers.
Jackson State
African American college in Mississippi who's students vandalized stores and taunted government officials by throwing rocks (national guard, highway patrolmen, and city police) resulted in wounded students and death of store owners
Vietnamization
The act of shifting responsibility of the Vietnam War from USA to South Vietnam.
Nixon's plan to bring US troops home and let South Vietnam defend itself
Medicaid
Medical care for the poor, children, disabled, and single moms.
Part of "Great Society"
Tet Offensive
Jan 1968. Vietcong launch surprise attack on the US Embassy in Saigon during the Vietnamese New Year.
Proved that Vietnam was not a clear win for the USA
Doves
Antiwar group during Vietnam.
Saw Vietnam as a civil war = USA had no right to interfere. Said war money could be better spent at home.
Freedom Riders
May of 1961. CORE protest. Busloads of protesters (AA/White) went from DC to the South hoping to enforce Boynton v Virginia. They were attacked in Alabama and bus set on fire.
Voting Registration Act of 1965
Signed by LBJ. Prohibited literacy and voter qualifications tests in elections.
NOW (National Organization for Women)
Established by Betty Friedan and professional women in 1966. Challenged in court unfair practices of businesses and the government. (Advocated laws to end domestic violence, sexual harassment, lesbians, and sports)
Black Panthers
Advocated Racial Separation for African Americans. "Black Power" = pride for race and willing to fight for it.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of Vietnam. Had USSR support. Favored peasant farmers. Troops = VietCong
Fidel Castro
Communist dictator of Cuba. Calls JFK out on air attack. JFK attacks him with Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis
Hubert Humphrey
Senator from Minnesota. Wanted to continue LBJ's "Great Society" programs, LBJ's VP. Liberal.
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama. Opposed school integration and forced busing. "Segregation.." Very racists.
Shot and paralyzed in the election of 1972
WEB Dubois
Founded the NAACP in 1910. Civil rights activist.
Gloria Steinem
Editor/Founder of "Ms Magazine" (first national published feminist magazine)
James Farmer
Director of CORE. Worked for no pay. Developed it into a national program.
Thurgood Marshall
AA Lawyer. Defense attorney in Brown v. BOE - argued against segregated schools in America.
First African American Supreme Court appointment (LBJ)
Dwight Eisenhower
War hero. Campaign was "Peace, progress, prosperity"
Led America during the Cold War. Held Policy of Brinksmanship
Kent State
May 4th, 1970. College in Ohio who's students protested Vietnam War by burning down ROTC building and taunting National Guard soldiers resulting in the death of students.
"Pigs off Campus"
Domino Theory
Idea that if one country fell to communism, more would follow after. Influenced US involvement in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Allowed the president to take all necessary steps and military force to repel against Vietnam for defensive purposes. Passed by LBJ
Medicare
Medical aid for the elderly (65+)
Part of LBJ's "Great Society"
Hawks
Prowar group during Vietnam.
Argued the war started due to the attack on US gunboat and the invasion of South Vietnam.
HUD (Housing & Urban Department)
Provided low income housing for the poor
CORE
Founded in 1924 by Pacifists dedicated to a peaceful charge. Interracial. Led by James Farmer (worked for free) Organized peaceful protests in Northern cities that were segregated in the 60s.
NAACP
Founded by WEB Dubois.
Interracial group of middle class African Americans and whites. Led the legal fight against discrimination in the 1920s-50s
NATO (National Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Military alliance between Western Europe, USA, and Canada
Spurred the creation of the Warsaw Pact
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
Founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King Jr and other African American Clergymen. Shifted the Civil Rights Movement to the south. Led the fight for equal rights.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Founded in 1960 by Ella Baker. Interracial organization that broke from the SCLC to help young African American college students have a more active part in the movement. Shifted the fight from "church leaders" to "college students"
more defiant
AIM (American Indian Movement)
Founded in 1968. Militant group that wanted to preserve American Indian Heritage, customs and traditions. (protests in Alcatraz and Wounded Knee)
Ngo Dinh Diem
Dictator of South Vietnam. Supported by USA. Favored wealthy land owners.
assassinated in 1963
Barry Goldwater
Arizona Senator. Conservative.
"We should drop a low yield nuclear bomb on the Kremlin."
George Mcgovern
South Dakota Senator. Anti-war liberal.
proposed to cut the military budget
Rachel Carson
Marine biologist. Author of "Silent Spring" that described how DDT and other chemical pesticides contaminated Nature's food.
Cesar Chavez
Founded the National Farm Workers Union in 1962 to get better pay and working conditions for migrant workers.
Medger Evers
NAACP worker who was gunned down in Mississippi.
Malcom X
Thought African Americans could only succeed if they separated from the "white society"
(Allah would bring a "black nation")
"Black Pride" = pride in being black (afros)
JFK
Senator of Mass. "New Frontier Campaign"
Led during the Cuban conflicts against Castro and Vietnam War. Assassinated on Nov. 22
Search & Destroy
US military tactic to locate and eliminate the enemy.
(used helicopters and air cavalry). Destroyed enemy and withdrew immediately.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibited discrimination in employment and public accommodations. (race, color, religion, sex, or national origin)
24th Amendment
Passed in 1964. Abolished "poll taxes" in Federal Elections
Voting Rights Act of 1975
Required ballots to be printed in a variety of languages or to be read aloud to the voter. (non English speaking "citizens" to have a ballot written in Spanish)
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
Supreme Court case that ruled "Separate but equal" unconstitutional.
Oliver Brown (AA) sued the Topeka, KS BOE to allow his daughter to attend a "white" school.
Boynton v. Virginia 1960
Supreme Court case that prohibited segregation on buses and businesses used in interstate travel
Roe v. Wade 1974
Supreme Court case that legalized abortion without the male's consent. Made it the "women's choice" to decide.
Election of 1952
Dwight Eisenhower (Rep) defeats Adlai Stevenson (Dem)
Election of 1956
Eisenhower (Rep) defeats Stevenson (Dem)

"Peace, Progress, and Prosperity"
Eisenhower wins by a landslide
Stevenson = TV ads focused on women's votes which backfired in Electoral College
Election of 1960
JFK (Dem) defeats Nixon (Rep)

Slogan: "New Frontier"
First election to have televised presidential debates
Election of 1964
LBJ (Dem) defeats Barry Goldwater (Rep)

Campaign = "Great Society"
Declared war on poverty
Election of 1968
Nixon (Rep) defeats Humprey (Dem) and George Wallace (Independent)

Robert E. Kennedy was campaigning and was assassinated.
"New Nixon" - "Silent Majority will elect me"
only 28% of eligible voters voted
Election of 1972
Nixon (Rep) defeats George McGorem (Dem) and George Wallace (Independent)

First election 18 year olds could vote in
Nixon - paranoid about losing the election - orders Watergate break-in