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PSYC100 - Cumulative Questions
Terms in this set (52)
Given what we know about attraction, how would the degree of perceived similarity determine the strength of normative influence?
Normative social influence involves conforming in order to be accepted or liked by a group, not necessarily because one actually believes the things one is doing or saying. If both already share a sense of perceived similarity, it may be because they have conformed to the beliefs of the other individual, but are not actually similar at all. The more similar you think you are, the more attracted you be to the other person, so the more likely you will be to conform to the rules/behaviors of the other person.
How can we explain what we consider to be sexually attractive using either a biosocial theory (e.g., intersexual selection) or sociocultural theory?
With biosocial theory, you find someone attractive if they look healthy, such as men looking at a woman to see if she's fertile (more likely to carry on genes). You look for and are attracted to things that will help you and your offspring survive. With sociocultural theory, it's going along with the social standard of what beauty is, basing attraction off of your society's cultural norms.
How can we relate the Clever Hans phenomenon to the Rosenthal Effect?
The Rosenthal effect is when a researcher's bias or expectations of the study affect their behavior and the research. Clever Hans' teacher expected for Hans to be able to do the math problems, he unknowingly gave off physical cues (tensing of muscles) when Hans approached the correct answer. The researcher influenced the subject to behave how they expected.
How can we understand a child's drive to form attachments from a biosocial perspective? How does their actual attachment style relate to learning theory?
Attachment is learned from early experience, if child needed help and mom wasn't there, weak attachment is formed and vice versa. This relates to the biosocial perspective as a child will need his mother for nourishment and the possibility of growth and survival (or biosocial would say children form attachments to have a safe-haven and someone to protect them.). The actual attachment style is based on the learning theory since if a child has tried to get attention from the mother in times of insecurity and she wasn't there ( like crying to bring the mother back and it hasn't worked before) they know that he/she can't count on her in the future, thus the attachment patterns.
The child learns their attachment style from how the mother acts when the child is in need. (if the mother was able to act as a safe-haven for child, then the child sees the mom as a secure base and learns to trust the mom and know that she will be there for child when they go out to explore new things. If mom is not a good safe haven, the child will be insecurely attached and will not trust mom to be there.) Children desire to form attachments because they want stability and security, forming attachments when they're young will help them have better relationships when they're old therefore reproduce easier.
How can you explain the effect of cognitive load in terms of the capacity of short-term memory?
Cognitive Load = amount of mental effort being used in working memory (tasks at hand/what keeping track of).
Short term memory can only hold 7 plus/minus 2 items at a time. Any cognitive load we get will reduce the capacity of our short term memory because we have limited cognitive resources.
How could you use the method of loci to remember the order or Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
This is a mnemonic device or technique in which a person visualizes the items they're trying to learn in different spatial locations.
-Trust vs. Mistrust
-Autonomy vs. shame
-Initiative vs. guilt
-Industry vs. Inferiority
-ego identity vs. role confusion
-Intimacy vs. Isolation
-Generativity vs. Stagnation
-Ego integrity vs. despair
So for example, place each stage on one of the main islands of Hawaii east to west and remember the order that way.
How did Aronson & Mills (1959) operationalize effort (IV) and justification (DV)?
In 1959 Eliot Aronson & Judson Mills wanted to examine the role that commitment and self-justification would play in joining a group. In this case, they would have to go through an initiation in order to join the group. When they actually were in the group, they find that it is terribly boring and not worth the bother. This should produce cognitive dissonance - that is, her cognition that she has gone through an unpleasant experience for the sake of membership is dissonant with her cognition that there are things about the group that she does not like. She can reduce the dissonance by exaggerating the positive aspects of the group and minimizing the negative aspects.
IV - initiation process...Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: a severe initiation condition, a mild initiation condition, and a control condition in which no initiation was required.
DV- liking of group... the researchers explained that at the end of each meeting all participants fill out a questionnaire expressing her reactions to the discussion. They were to rate the discussion on interest and intelligence on a scale of 0 - 15.
How do 3D glasses trick your eyes into perceiving depth from a flat screen?
3D glasses use the binocular disparity effect to achieve this. Binocular disparity means that each of our eyes has a slightly different perspective/view of the world so the brain combines these differences to make a 3D image. The red and blue 3d glasses make each of our eyes see in different colours and slightly different images so when the brain combines the two, it forms a much more visible 3D effect
How does the behavior modification concept of negative reinforcement help understand the C in OCD?
Negative Reinforcement, take away something to encourage behavior, The C (compulsion) takes away the stress in an obsession, germaphobe stressed about germs, washes their hands as a compulsion, this is negative reinforcement.
How does Triver's theory of parental investment, and the concept of parental certainty, explain why the females of a species tend to be the more selective in choosing a sexual partner.
Females are certain that their child is theirs (parental certainty) and are more selective as they have higher parental investment, meaning they have to carry a child all throughout pregnancy, ultimately putting more time to take care of it.This leads them to pick mates they find more financially stable and reliable so that they will not see a loss in the energy they have dedicated for this cause.
How is attachment conceptually related to our inherent need to belong and the benefits of social support?
The need to belong entails a reliance on others in time of need, both in terms of perceived and actual help by people in our social network. A child also relies on his/her mother's assistance in many things and expects her to be there for him/her. A person's attachment is determined by a combination of expectation of help and actually receiving it in time of need. If a person has a strong attachment with his/her parent, it means that their need to belong has been satisfied and so they will function better in their day to day lives, knowing that they have some type of support.
How is attribution related to fixed vs. growth mindsets?
Attribution is the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events. How we attach meaning to other's behavior, or our own. Fixed look for a desire to look smart/ego oriented, growth look to learn/task oriented.
How is classical conditioning related to the avoidant symptoms of PTSD?
In cases of PTSD, something that was previously a neutral stimulus, can be conditioned due to the trauma to become a conditioned stimulus, victims thus avoid certain things to remind them of the incident.
How is self-handicapping related to the self-serving bias? Be clear about the role of motivated cognition and subconscious biases.
In self-handicapping, individuals handicap to protect their self esteem, when a person avoids putting in effort towards something in order to protect themselves in the event that they possibly fail the task. The self-serving bias blames other external factors on why an individual did not succeed. So, when someone self-handicaps, and fails a test, they can blame their failure on the self-handicap.
How might the pervasive belief in learning styles be related to the confirmation bias?
You have had success learning something one way, so you will continue to use that same learning style because you now believe it's the only way you can learn (pervasive belief in learning styles), and by continually using that strategy, you prove its efficiency to yourself (confirmation bias)
How might we explain the origin of a fetish in terms of classical conditioning? How about in terms of a misattribution of arousal?
An unconditioned stimulus of sexual material which causes an unconditioned response of arousal, may be paired with a neutral stimulus (ex: shoe), then the shoe becomes a conditioned stimulus and causes the conditioned response of arousal. A fetish can also arise due to misattribution of arousal; one can think they are being aroused by an object or activity, while in actuality it could be something else (exercising, experiencing fear) that caused the arousal, ...one may have felt a change in physiology caused by an unknown stimulus (ex. Running), but might have misattributed that arousal to the object (fetish).
How would you describe the social desirability bias in terms of sociocultural theory?
In sociocultural theory, people behave in a way that aligns to society's standards and norms. The social desirability bias means someone will alter their response/behavior (possibly because it is weird, racist, selfish, etc) to what is deemed normal and acceptable by society.
In what way are the gestalt principles of perception related to top-down processing?
Top-down processing is using background knowledge to influence perception. The Gestalt principles has to deal with a person's ability to identify individual parts or characteristics of a whole image and then visualize the image in its entirety. So one will use their previous experiences/ perceptions to decide the characteristics of the different objects and how they are oriented.
In what way can we describe the fundamental attribution error as a heuristic?
FAE is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics (personality) to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation rather than considering the situation's external factors. Heuristics are mental shortcuts used to make decisions/assumptions. In the representative heuristic, I might assume someone with slurred speech is a druggie. Just like how I might assume someone who is late to class is irresponsible.
In what way does cognitive-behavioral therapy focus on elements of emotional intelligence and self-control?
CBT helps us identify unhealthy thoughts that can lead to mental instability. CBT helps us change the way that we see these thoughts so they don't become damaging. CBT helps mainly with self-awareness, which is an element of emotional intelligence. Self-awareness is the ability to identify and acknowledge your own personal strengths and weaknesses. CBT can also be related to helping with self control by helping regulate any harming or damaging thoughts.
In what way is the distinction between controlled and automatic cognition similar to the distinction between explicit and implicit attitudes?
Controlled cognition is purposeful and requires more effort, and automatic is what happens outside the awareness of somebody and is learned through experience. Explicit attitudes are attitudes that you are aware of and that you can control and report on a self-report measure but implicit are more unconscious and you are less aware of, as they are automatic, subconscious evaluations.
Is a schizophrenic hallucination a sensation or a perception? Why?
It is a perception because it is something that the brain experiences without any other physical sensation from other organs. A schizophrenic hallucination is a perception because it is not actually occurring in the real world, it is simply perceived by the brain.
What are the four lobes of the cerebrum and what are they generally responsible for?
Frontal: Gives us a personality, makes judgements, and responsible for production of language (mnemonic: the front lobe does forward thinking)
Temporal: Comprehension of sound and speech (mnemonic: "remember that time when when..." if a verbal phrase people often use, having to do with time)
Occipital: Comprehension of visual info
Parietal Lobe: Sense of touch and proprioception (body position)
What division of the nervous system is particularly activated during a panic attack?
The sympathetic nervous system will be activated during a panic attack, triggering the body's fight or flight systems, increasing heart rate for muscle activity, dilated pupils for better vision.
What is shaping and how can we differentially reinforce successive approximations to achieve a complex target behavior?
Shaping is the differential reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target behavior. We can do this by rewarding each separate step. Not only are we reinforcing the small steps, but we are also reinforcing the most wanted outcome by rewarding that wanted step more than any other (less important) step.
(Training a rat to play basketball example) rewarding for successive actions that get close to the desired result and continuous changing of rewards system until only the desired final action is deserving of reward.
What is stereotype threat? Why would it detract from performance in some courses?
Stereotype Threat - fear that ones behavior will confirm an existing stereotype of a group they identify with.
Could detract from performance in some courses because one could be aware of the stereotype and subconsciously enforce it, and the stereotype threat could lower motivation. (ex. athletes doing poorly in school)
What is the conceptual link between attachment theory and borderline personality disorder?
Attachment Theory = individual being able to form "attachment" to another gives security and stability necessary to take risks, branch out and grow and develop their personality.
Borderline Personality Disorder = pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, abandonment fears, inappropriate anger.
As a child, could have had insecure-ambivalent attachment, grew in life to have a mistrust in relationships and BPD.
What is the conceptual link between moral emotions and anti-social personality disorder?
Moral emotions or, guilt, shame, embarrassment and pride. People with antisocial personality disorder have no regard for right and wrong therefore they do not really feel guilt or shame; they lack moral emotions because they do not accurately understand society (don't understand how someone else might feel in different scenarios...etc)
What is the connection between episodic memories and PTSD?
Episodic memories = category of long term memory, recollection of specific events, situations, experiences.
PTSD focuses on a specific episodic memory, trauma caused by one event stuck in memory.
What is the connection between Seligman's (1975) study of learned helplessness and a cognitive explanation of depression?
Learned Helplessness - accepting something because you know that no matter what is done it wont help. Dogs constantly being shocked regardless of jumping and moving around, dog learned to just sit down and take it even when opportunity to escape is given.
Cycle of Depression - cant get away from feelings, let the cycle happen. Recurrences of depression will be accepted because of previous failure to seek treatment/feel better. When someone suffers from depression, they often have a lot of negative thoughts similar to the dog that was getting shocked they can feel helpless as if they are not going to ever get better and give up seeking treatment or caring about getting better.
What is the difference between sensation and perception, and how is that related to the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing?
Sensation happens within our eyes and involves stimuli being detected by receptors in the body. Perception happens within our brain and involves how we receive, organize and interpret the sensory info. Top down processing involves perceiving sensory info using contextual cognition while bottom up processing is processing info as it is coming in.
What is the difference between the functions of the amygdala and the hippocampus
hippocampus deals with our learning and memory while the amygdala deals with our emotions: fear and aggression.
What is the difference between the placebo effect, the Rosenthal effect, demand characteristics, and the social desirability bias? Clarify for each whether it is a threat to internal or external validity.
Placebo effect = people thinking they experience a benefit after the administration of a placebo (substance with no effects) [i.e. fake treatment]
Rosenthal effect = researcher influencing participant to receive hypothesis desired (can be subconscious)(internal)
Demand Characteristics = participant attempting to guess what the researcher want to happen and behaving in a way to confirm expectations
Social desirability bias = tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorable by others
Internal Validity - whether effects observed due to manipulation of IV and not another factor (i.e. is there a true relationship between the Independent and Dependent variables)
External Validity - extent to which results of a study can be generalized to other settings, other people and over time
What is the purpose of using behavior descriptions and XYZ statements when communicating with others? How exactly would you use them in a real or hypothetical example?
Behavior Descriptions - focus on small, correctable problems rather than broad accusations or long-standing habits (ex. "You left wet towels on the bathroom floor again" instead of an accusation like "you are so lazy")
XYZ Statements - "When you do X in situation Y, I feel Z" (ex. when you mention my diet in front of my friends, I feel self-conscious)
What is the relationship between "fixed" and "growth" mindsets, self-fulfilling prophecies, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)?
The fixed mindset is believing that one can only learn so much, the growth mindset is believing that the mind always has room to improve, grow and learn more. This is related to self-fulfilling prophecies because those who think they can learn more ("growth") will in fact learn more, while those who are "fixed" will handicap themselves and make it so; it's related to CBT because it is a cognition that can change your learning behavior. Thoughts about growth and learning can change your outcome.
What is the relationship between Ekman's basic emotions and biosocial theory?
Basic Emotions- do not need to be learned/ do not require full self awareness or theory of mind. Biosocial- evolution. The 6 basic emotions are universal and biological, they have evolved and are among all humans regardless of language, thus must be necessary for reproduction and maintaining genes.
What is the relationship between elaborative rehearsal, priming, schemas, and accessibility?
All ways to retrieve information easier, elaborative rehearsal helps make meaningful connections, elaborations, interconnections to remember things and make them accessible, priming & ER brings schemas (group of information linked together because they are somewhat related) forward in the memory and accessibility is how easy said information can be retrieved.
What is the relationship between inattentional blindness and unilateral neglect
Inattentional Blindness - individual failing to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight (ex. clown dancing YouTube video). inattentional blindness is we tend to focus on one thing despite other activity happening around us.
Unilateral Neglect - symptom of brain damage where a person is unaware of one side of their body and anything in the external world on the same side
Somebody suffering from unilateral neglect can become intentionally blind and unaware of something in plain sight.
What is the relationship between operant conditioning and Kolhberg's pre-conventional stage of moral development?
Kolhberg's stages of moral development:
Pre-conventional Level = self focused morality, obeying rules and avoiding negative consequences, see rules set as moral law
Conventional Level = understand what is expected of them, morality is achieving expectations, fulfilling obligations and following expectations moral law
Post-conventional Level = as adults see people have different opinions of morality, vary from culture to culture, morality upholding values of your culture, right and wrong based on circumstances surrounding the action
Children can be conditioned with punishments to see rules set as moral law and avoid negative stimuli.
What is the relationship between pluralistic ignorance, assimilation, and conformity?
Pluralistic Ignorance = privately rejecting a norm because you incorrectly assume that the majority has a different opinion/view than you (ex. not raising your hand in class when you're confused). Is a situation in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but incorrectly assume that most others accept it, and therefore go along with it.
Assimilation = taking in new experiences and incorporating them into existing ideas
Conformity = tendency to align attitudes, beliefs and behaviors with those around you
What is the relationship between sociocultural theory and normative influence?
Sociocultural theory means an individual follows society's culture and norms. Normative social influence is a type of social influence leading to conformity. It is defined in social psychology as "the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them".
What is the research evidence that our memory is not as accurate as we would like to believe?
Loftus & Palmer (1974) - experiment on eyewitness accounts of car crashes
IV - wording of question (smashed, contacted, hit, bumped, collided)
DV - speed of accident reported by participants
Critical verbs changes person's perception of accident, which is then stored in their memory. Eyewitness testimony can be biased based off how questions are worded.
Wade et al. (2002) - experiment on adult subjects creating false memory reports
IV - receiving a photo or narrative
DV - memory reports
Adults can create memories from their childhood without realizing they never happened based off pictures or narratives.
What is the similarity between how cocaine and SSRIs (used to treat depression) work at the synaptic level
Cocaine - attaches to dopamine transporter and blocks recycling process, resulting in a build up of dopamine in the synapse, contributes to pleasurable effects of cocaine
SSRIs - block reuptake of serotonin, meaning more serotonin than usual remains available in the synaptic space between the 2 nerves
Both cocaine and SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin, causing for a buildup of serotonin and dopamine or pleasure.
What, in terms of a scientist's methodology, is the difference between correlational and causal conclusions? Be prepared to give three example studies that we have learned about for each.
Correlational: when something has a tendency with another thing
Causal conclusions: when something actually causes something else, shown by manipulation, i.e. an experiment with IV and DV.
"correlation does not equal causation"
example: Ice cream sales and deaths caused by drownings increase at the same time of year. This correlation does not mean that ice cream consumption causes people to drown, it's the time of year/summer/etc.
How do researchers use each of the following methods to collect data? What are some advantages and disadvantages of each method?
Naturalistic observation - researcher unobtrusively collects info without the participant's awareness
--Advantages: researcher not influencing participants
--Disadvantages: time consuming, behavior has to be interpreted, individuals have no choice of involvement
Structured observation - researchers set up a situation and observe the participant's behavior
--Advantages: control of situation and variables, can collect information from other participants
--Disadvantages: participant aware of situation
Self-report - participants are asked to provide info or responses to questions on a survey or structure assessment
--Advantages: inexpensive and efficient, easy to create and score, computers allow for data around the world
--Disadvantages: participants can misinterpret questions, participants could be unable or unwilling to answer, differences between what people think and what they tell researcher
Longitudinal study - You study participants and record results over a period of time
--Advantages: can track averages over time
--Disadvantages: take a long time, "attrition" (not all who being study will complete it), "selective attrition" (something that causes people to drop out of the study so ending group is different in important way)
Cross-sectional study - researchers can gather participants of different ages and look for differences between the groups
--Advantages: study time in a shorter time than longitudinal, no attrition
--Disadvantages: "cohort effects" (differences caused by something other than time ex. generation's experiences)
Case study - researchers can conduct a detailed analysis of only one case of a specific phenomenon.
--Advantages: can study unusual or rate participants or events, in-depth study of particular case can reveal interesting future studies
--Disadvantages: one case may not generalize to others
Archival - researchers can examine data that has already been collected for other purposes
--Advantages: conduct research of large data sets without expense and time of collecting it
--Disadvantages: data may be missing, incomplete or have errors
Controlled experiment - researchers create a controlled environment in which they can carefully manipulate at least one variable to test its effect on another
How are each of the following examples of motivated cognition?
-Cocktail party effect
-Freudian defense mechanisms
Motivated Cognition - doing what motivates one
Cocktail Party effect - attention (hearing one's name and responding in loud party environment), motivated to self
Balance theory - attitude change conceptualizing cognitive consistency
Motivated to drive to psychological balance
Dissonance - motivated to relieve dissonance (problem between ones actions and beliefs)
Freudian defense mechanisms - repression, denial, projection, displacement, regression, sublimation
Motivated to repress id
Rosenthal effect - researcher influencing participant to receive hypothesis desired (self fulfilling prophecy & Pygmalion effect), motivated to confirm hypothesis [can be subconscious]
Confirmation bias - tendency to search for, interpret or remember information that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses
Motivated to confirm beliefs
What is the role of arousal in
-Schachter & Singer's theory of emotions
the women in the other group who enjoyed the crude words misattributed their arousal to the discussion group, therefore having an effect on their higher rating of the activity
Schachter & Singer's theory of emotions
Arousal in this case is a physiological change, it is important because the brain interprets the arousal to be either positive or negative and assigns an emotion based on that
GAD - chronic exaggerated worry and tension, even though nothing seems to provoke it
Arousal consistent, unable to relax, irrational
How might you increase the frequency of desired behaviors or decrease the frequency of undesired behaviors using...
Positive reinforcement (+R)
Negative reinforcement (-R)
Positive punishment (+P)
Negative punishment (-P)
Positive reinforcement (+R)
if a child does something good, you give him or her a treat
Negative reinforcement (-R)
If a child does something good, you take away something that they don't like
Positive punishment (+P)
you add something to take away a child's behavior (SPANKING)
Negative punishment (-P) (taking away a toy a child likes)
What are some examples of how each schedule is used to reinforce or punish your behavior?
Continuous - every time a behavior occurs
Ex. every time a puppy sits on cue gets a treat
Fixed Ratio - response reinforced after a specific number of responses
Ex. in a video game every 100 coins, 1 life rewarded
Variable Ratio - response reinforced after unpredictable number of responses
Ex. slot machines
Fixed Interval - rewarded after a specific amount of time elapsed
Ex. weekly paycheck, rewarded every 7 days
Variable Interval - rewarded after unpredictable amount of time
Ex. checking email, emails come in at random times
Fixed = specific amount, Variable = unpredictable amount
Ratio = number, Interval = time
How would a therapist from each of the following perspectives approach treatment for the disorder listed?
-Behavioral Therapist - Neurodevelopmental disorder
-Psychoanalysis - Anxiety disorder
-CBT - Eating disorders
-Psychoanalysis is a method of treatment that helps people understand themselves, their relationships, and how they behave in the world. Psychoanalytic treatment is based on the idea that we are frequently motivated to act by impulses that we don't recognize because they originate in our unconscious.
-Cognitive behavioral therapy helps you become aware of inaccurate or negative thinking, so you can view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way.
How would you go about establishing a classically conditioned association? What would the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, and CR be?
-Teach a dolphin that the sound of a whistle is a good thing
-Keep a pet off your couch by making it want to avoid the pillows on it
-Make a young child excited to earn a gold star sticker on her homework
-Make a young child avoid things that are labeled with the symbol for poison
Teach a dolphin that the sound of a whistle is a good thing
Keep a pet off your couch by making it want to avoid the pillows on it
NS → Pillow
UCS → Clap or loud noise
UCR → Frightened
CS → Pillow
CR → Frightened
Make a young child excited to earn a gold star sticker on her homework
NS → Gold Star
UCS → Praise or food
UCR → Positive Affect
CS → Gold Star
CR → Positive Affect
What are the diagnostic criteria for a phobia and how would a behavioral therapist approach treatment using
A phobia is an intense fear of something that is not typically threatening.
Habituation: Exposing a person to constant presence of their phobia will eventually decrease their fear (flooding)
Systematic desensitization: Start with a small stimulus that does not invoke the fear response and build up to the stimulus the person is afraid of.
Counter-conditioning: Present a positive stimulus when the patient encounters the phobia. For example, give them $100 whenever they touch a spider.
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