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Supported the ratification of the Constitution


Did not support the ratification of the Constitution

Northwest Land Ordinance

Refined qualifications for statehood: a certain amount of land had to be reserved for public education and slavery was prohibited in this territory

Shay's Rebellion

Farmers couldn't pay their taxes so their land was being taken away...instead of giving up their land, the farmers rebelled

Annapolis Convention

Originally a meeting between 5 states to discuss trade/commerce/navigation problems but then turned into a discussion on reforming the Articles

Mount Vernon Conference

A meeting between Maryland and Virginia to discuss navigation of rivers, but turned into discussion of trade problems between states


wrote the Spirit of Laws; believed in the separation of powers


Believed that kings should have total power and people need a strong central government to maintain order

Ben Franklin

Oldest member of the Constitutional Convention

George Washington

President of the Constitutional Convention

Thomas Jefferson

Wrote the Declaration of Independence

Edmond Randolph

Sponsored the Virginia Plan

Alexander Hamilton

Leader of the Federalists

James Madison

Wrote the Constitution; drafted the Virginia Plan

George Mason

Would not sign the Constitution without the addition of a bill of rights

Virginia Plan

Two houses of Congress, President, Supreme Court, representation based on population, and favored the big states

New Jersey Plan

Opposite of Virginia Plan, one house of Congress, no President, no Supreme Court, equal representation, and favored smaller states

Connecticut Compromise

Two houses of Congress with split representation: Senate (equal) and House of Representatives (based on population)

3/5 Compromise

Slaves are considered 3/5 of the population when voting

Slave Trade Compromise

The South's slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution (until 1810)

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.

Beard Thesis

Believed that the Constitution was only written in order to benefit the rich authors

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