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History final short answers and essay
Terms in this set (10)
Discuss the Five Pillars of Islam
Faith: to become a Muslim, a person has to testify to the following statement of faith; "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." This simple statement is heard again and again in Islamic rituals and in Muslim daily life.
Prayer: 5 times a day, Muslims turn towards Mecca to pray. They may assemble at a mosque, an Islamic house of worship, or where ever they find themselves
Alms: Muhammad taught that all Muslims have a responsibility to support the less fortunate. Muslims meet that social responsibility by giving alms, or money for the poor, through a special religious tax.
Fasting: During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. Fasting serves to remind Muslims that their spiritual needs are greater than their physical needs.
Pilgrimage: all Muslims who are physically and financially able perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once. Pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before Allah
Define shari'ah law and describe its Impact on Islamic civilization
The guidance of the Qur'an (the holy book of the muslims) and Sunna (Muhammad's example) was assembled in a body of law know as the shari'ah. This system of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims.
Define the reasons for the Shia/Sunni split in Islam
Sunni: 1.) Believe that the first four caliphs were "rightly guided"
2.) Believe that Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna, or Muhammad's example
3.) Claim that the Shi'a have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur'an
4.) did not outwardly resist the rule of the Umayyads
Shi'a: 1.) Believe that Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, should have succeeded him
2.) Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad, do not recognize the authority of the Sunna
3.) claims that the Sunni have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur'an
How did the Byzantines help to preserve Greco Roman culture?
Because families valued education, students were focused on Greek and Latin Grammar and philosophy. The students studied the classics of Homer, Euclid, Herodotus and Galen.
What various methods did the Byzantines used to hold off their enemies?
bribes, diplomacy, political marriages, military power, strategic location, large walls and fleets of military ships.
How did the Mongols affect life in Asia during the time period studied in the chapter?
-interaction of nomadic and settled people across Asia
-largest unified land empire in history
-slaughtered whole cities that dared to oppose them
-inspired fear and insecurity in lands not yet conquered
-law, trade, and order know as Mongol peace
Compare and contrast Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy
Roman Catholic- service in Latin
Eastern Orthodox- service in Greek/local language
RC- Pope=supreme power over bishops & emperors/kings
EO-Patriarch & bishops=group that ruled church, emperor= supreme authority over group
RC- Priest cannot marry b/c taking oath to God, divorce not allowed
EO-Priest can marry, divorce allowed under certain conditions
-believed in God, Jesus, Bible, 10 Commandments
-believed in after life
-used religion to unite empire
How did the Sui, Tang, and song dynasties restore order after the collapse of the Han dynasty?
• Wendi united the Zhou and Chen kingdoms creating the first united China since the fall of the Han, three and a half centuries earlier.
ESSAY: Discuss the various causes and effects of the crusades (short term and long term causes and effects).
Causes: The crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives. Muslims controlled Palestine, the holy land, and threatened Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor in Constantinople appealed to Christians to stop Muslim attacks. In addition, the pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom, which had split into eastern and western branches in 1054. Also kings and the church both saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome some knights who fought each other. These knights threatened the peace of the kingdom as well as church property. Some of the younger men joining the Crusade were looking to receive land
Effects: for the people who did not go on the Crusades and stayed home, especially women, meant a chance to manage affairs on the estates or to operate shops and inns. European merchants who lived and traded in the Crusader states expanded trade between Europe and southwest Asia. This trade with the West benefited both Christians and Muslims. The failure of later crusades also lessened the power of the pope. The crusades weekend the feudal mobility and increased the power of kings. For Muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by the Christians in the holy land left behind a legacy of bitterness and hatred. This legacy continues to the present.
ESSAY: Discuss the new farming techniques used in Europe and the impact of new farming methods on its society and economy
Expanding civilization required an increased food supply. A warmer climate, which lasted from about 800 to 1200, brought improved farm production. Farmers began to cultivate lands in regions once to cold to grow crops. For hundreds of years, peasants had depended on oxen to pull their plows. Oxen lived on the poorest straw and stubble, so they were easy to keep. Horses needed better food but a team of horses could plow three times as much land in a day as a team of oxen. Around 800 some villages began to organize their lands into three fields instead of two. Two of the fields were planted and the other lay resting for a year. Under this new three field system, farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land each year not just on half of it. As a result, food production increased. Villagers had more to eat. Well fed people, especially children, could better resist disease and live longer, and as a result the European population grew dramatically.
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