Terms in this set (21)
the measure of the frequency of an allele at a genetic locus in a population; expressed as a proportion of percentage
a physical structure, present in multiple species, that is similar in function but different in form and inheritance
the branch of zoology studying the early development of living things
A process in which new species develop from preexisting species (biological evolution or macroevolution); a change in the allele frequencies of a population of organisms from generation to generation (genetic evolution or microevolution)
The preserved remains or traces of organisms that once lived on Earth
A decrease in genetic variation caused by the formation of a new population by a small number of individuals.
A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection
A proposed explanation in evolutionary biology stating that new species arise from the result of slight modifications (mutations and resulting phenotypic changes) over many generations
a physical characteristic in different organisms that is similar because it was inherited from a common ancestor
a proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observed phenomenon
Features of behaviors, morphology, or genetics which serve to prevent mating or breeding between two different species (e.g., temporal isolation- in which individuals are active at different times of the day, seasons, or mating periods; ecological isolation- in which individuals only mate in their specific habitat; behavioral isolation- when there are no sexual cues between representatives of the species; mechanical isolation- when there is no sperm transfer during an attempted mating; and gametic incompatibility- when there is sperm transfer without fertilization occurring). If mating can take place, there are four factors that prevent hybrid viability: zygotic mortality (fertilization but no zygote), hybrid in-viability (embryo is not viable), hybrid sterility (resulting adult is sterile), and hybrid breakdown (first generation is viable but future generations are not).
a law that generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found to a law. It explains things but does not describe them; serves as the basis of scientific principles
the combination of components and processes that serve a common function
a process in nature in which organisms possessing certain inherited traits are better able to survive and reproduce compared to others of their species
a concept based on scientific laws and axioms (rules assumed to be present, true, and valid) where general agreement is present
a proposed explanation in evolutionary biology stating that species are generally stable over long periods of time. Occasionally there are rapid changes that affect some species which can quickly result in a new species
selective breeding (artificial selection)
the process of breeding organisms that results on offspring with desired genetic traits
a process typically caused by the genetic isolation from a main population resulting in a new genetically distinct species
the lowest taxonomic level of biological classification consisting of organisms capable of reproduction that results in fertile offspring.
an explanation of observable phenomena based on available empirical data and guided by a system of logic that includes scientific laws; provides a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specific set of phenomena
a physical characteristic in organisms that appears to have lost its original function as a species has changed over time