27 terms

Apex Learning Semester 2 unit 2.1

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antibiotics
Chemical substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microganisms
Bacteria
A group of microscopic single-celled organisms
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
Base Pairs
In DNA, sets of two nitrogenous bases connected by a hydrogen bond.
Capsid
The protein shell of a virus
Complementary dtrand
In DNA replication, the new backbone and nitrogenous bases.
Conjugation
The transfer of DNA between two cells joined by a pilus
Deoxyribose
The sugar molecule found in DNA
DNA ligase
The enzyme that links pieces of replicated DNA together.
DNA Polymerase
In DNA replication, an enzyme that adds single nucleotides to the growing DNA chain.
Genome
All of the genetic material that makes up an organism.
Halicase
In DNA replication, the enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds connecting the nitrogenous bases to untwist the double helix.
Human Genome Project
An international study on human genetic material. The main purpose was to figure out the sequence of bases in human chromosomes.
Lysogenic Cycle
The process in which a virus incorporates its genome into a host's DNA in order to replicate. The virus is dominant during this cycle and does not damage to host cell.
Lytic cycle
The process in which a virus infects a host cell in order to replicate. This results in the death of the host cell.
Mapped
To have determined the location of the gene on a chromosome.
Nitrogenous Base
A compound that contains nitrogen and acts as a base. There are four different nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. In RNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
Nucleotide
The basic unit of a nucleic acid. It is made up of a phosphate group, a sugar ring, and a nucleotide base.
Pathogenic
Able to cause disease
Pilus
A thin, tubelike appendage on a prokaryotic cell that can be used to inject DNA into another cell through conjugation.
Replication fork
In DNA replication, the Y-shaped, untwisted part of the DNA molecule where new strands grow.
Rhinovirus
A type of virus that causes cold like symptoms/
Template strand
The original string of DNA being replicated.
Transduction
the process of DNA transfer in which a virus carries the genes from one cell to another.
Transformation
The introduction of genetic material into a cell, which causes a genetic change.
Unicellular prokaryote
An organism that is made of one cell and has no membrane-bound organelles.
Virus
Tiny, nonliving agent that multiplies inside a host cell and causes disease ex: chicken pox.