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long fiber that carries electrical impulses away from the nerve cell body


simple sugar that is used to make ATP through cellular respiration


hormone from the pancreas that decreases blood sugar by signaling the liver to store glucose

circulatory system

body system consisting of the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood through the body


organs that filter nitrogen wastes from blood to make urine


organ that regulates blood sugar by storing or releasing glucose; makes bile to break down fats; filters poisons out of the blood


elimination of wastes from the body (urine, carbon dioxide, sweat)

spinal cord

cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral nerves

sensory neurons

neurons that carry sensory information from receptors to the central nervous system

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands


nerve cell; conducts electrical signals

endocrine system

collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis


chemical messengers secreted by glands into the blood


an organ that secretes hormones into the bloodstream

nervous system

consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves and regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli


the process by which organisms keep their internal environment relatively stable

negative feedback loop

an opposite action to what is occurring in the body to regain homeostasis, ex. if body temperature rises too high, body tries to lower it


part of a neuron that carries the electrical impulse to the cell body


bundle of neurons surrounded by connective tissue


where two adjacent neurons meet


chemical messenger sent across a synapse which allows two neurons to communicate


hormone from the pancreas that raises blood sugar by signaling the liver to release glucose


long chain of glucose molecules; how glucose is stored in the liver and muscles


endocrine gland behind the stomach the regulates blood sugar with two hormones

central nervous system

processes and analyzes information from the peripheral nervous system; brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

consists of nerves that conduct signals to and from the central nervous system


anything that causes a response


a reaction to a stimulus

feedback inhibition

synonym for negative feedback; a change in the body causes the body to reverse the change


hormone produced by the pancreas that lowers blood sugar


hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to physical or mental stress

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