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Homeostasis Test

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axon
long fiber that carries electrical impulses away from the nerve cell body
glucose
simple sugar that is used to make ATP through cellular respiration
insulin
hormone from the pancreas that decreases blood sugar by signaling the liver to store glucose
circulatory system
body system consisting of the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood through the body
kidneys
organs that filter nitrogen wastes from blood to make urine
liver
organ that regulates blood sugar by storing or releasing glucose; makes bile to break down fats; filters poisons out of the blood
excretion
elimination of wastes from the body (urine, carbon dioxide, sweat)
spinal cord
cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral nerves
sensory neurons
neurons that carry sensory information from receptors to the central nervous system
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
neuron
nerve cell; conducts electrical signals
endocrine system
collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis
hormone
chemical messengers secreted by glands into the blood
gland
an organ that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
nervous system
consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves and regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli
homeostasis
the process by which organisms keep their internal environment relatively stable
negative feedback loop
an opposite action to what is occurring in the body to regain homeostasis, ex. if body temperature rises too high, body tries to lower it
dendrites
part of a neuron that carries the electrical impulse to the cell body
nerve
bundle of neurons surrounded by connective tissue
synapse
where two adjacent neurons meet
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger sent across a synapse which allows two neurons to communicate
glucagon
hormone from the pancreas that raises blood sugar by signaling the liver to release glucose
glycogen
long chain of glucose molecules; how glucose is stored in the liver and muscles
pancreas
endocrine gland behind the stomach the regulates blood sugar with two hormones
central nervous system
processes and analyzes information from the peripheral nervous system; brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
consists of nerves that conduct signals to and from the central nervous system
stimulus
anything that causes a response
response
a reaction to a stimulus
feedback inhibition
synonym for negative feedback; a change in the body causes the body to reverse the change
insulin
hormone produced by the pancreas that lowers blood sugar
adrenaline
hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to physical or mental stress