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american history chap 24
Terms in this set (66)
europe first strategy
a strategy used by the allies saying that until hitler was defeated, the pacific was to be a secondary theater of war
U-Boat "wolf packs
German boats that patrolled the Atlantic and Caribbean sinking merchant ships and allied seamen
General Eisenhower's North African Campaign
patton was in charge and his troops advanced east in africa while britain came from the west in egypt which trapped Axis forces
innovative tank commander known as blood and guts was put in charge of american forces in north africa
giving up completely without any concessions
the goal was to inflict maximum damage
the goal was to destroy a countries capacity to make war
escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fighter pilots, never lost a single bomber
commander of the US navy in the pacific, knew that Japanese's plans (battle of midway)
battle of midway
a turning point of the war in the pacific, ended the Japanese advance, put japan on the defensive, allies won because of Nimitz decoding japanese messages
battle of Guadalcanal
the battle in which the US drove the japanese off the Solomon islands
thought germany was a bigger threat (had the resources to win other countries)
our allies are in europe so we needed to protect them
made stalin happy
Why did Roosevelt support a "Europe First" strategy even though it was Japan that had first attacked the United States?
hitler wouldn't let the troops retreat so they were left starving with frostbite
both stalin and hitler wanted the victory
hitler mostly because it was named after stalin
stalin because it was named after him
a turning point because it ended any thoughts of hitler conquering Europe and put him on the defensive
Describe the horrible conditions during the siege of Stalingrad. Why is this considered a "turning point" in the Eastern Front?
yes because it gave the allies control of the western Mediterranean
paved the way for an invasion of italy
took mussolini out of power
led to italian surrender
Was the Allied invasion of Italy a success? Give reasons for your answer.
navy codebreakers discovered the japanese plans which helped them to plan at the battle of midway which led to an american victory
How does the Battle of Midway illustrate the importance of intelligence gathering and espionage in modern warfare?
ended Japan advancements
japanese forces never threatened hawaii or dominated the pacific again
were on the defensive
Why is the victory at Midway considered a "turning point" in the central Pacific?
A. Philip Randolph's "Double-V" Campaign
a victory against fascism abroad and the victory against discrimination at home, asserted that african americans would no longer accept second class citizenship
Executive Order 8802
issued by roosevelt, assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce these requirements
congress of racial equality, an organization that sought to apply nonviolent protest as a means of fighting segregation
the US brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms
Executive Order 9066
FDR was pushed to address Japanese in the US, because of this the order was issued, designated certain areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason
Japanese Americans were temporarily imprisoned in isolated locations
Korematsu v. United States
japanese americans went to court for their rights, the supreme court upheld the government's wartime internment policy,
442nd Regimental Combat Team
Japanese Americans who fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history, countered the notion that Japanese Americans were not loyal citizens
many americans bought these to save income and invest in the war effort, the government reminded americans that every dollar spent on war bonds meant another bullet or bomb and another step closer to victory
americans were issued a certain amount of goods to control the economy
Office of war information
worked closely with the media to encourage support of the war effort, spotlighted common needs, minimized racial and economic divisions, and downplayed problems of poverty and crime
planted in vacant lots or backyards because there was so much farm produce going to the troops
Mexicans came to rural areas after people move to the cities
Describe population shifts in the U.S.during WWII.
wages would go down
they are able to keep the jobs they receive
Predict two possible consequences for wartime women factory workers ("Rosie the Riveter") when men began to return from overseas after the war.
a result of minorities entering urban areas
they thought they were taking the whites mens job
How were the causes of the Detroit race riots and the Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots similar?
330 billion dollars and put a tax on workers
How much did WWII cost, and how did the government pay for these expenses?
yes because they needed more supplies for the war effort in order to win the war
had to pay off the war debt
Do you think the federal government was justified in limiting individual freedom by imposing wage and price controls and by rationing during wartime? Why or why not?
paper used for packing around equipment
metal used for weapons
fats used to cook and make explosives
made to contribute to the war effort
Why do you think people collected paper, scrap metal, and fats? (look online if you need more information)
did out of desperation and it turned into violence
Many labor groups made "no strike" pledges at the start of the war. What was the problem with "wildcat strikes"?
General Eisenhower Supreme Commander Allied forces
the most experienced allied officers in Europe, eisenhower was the supreme commander
D-Day landing of Europe (Operation Overlord)
the allies hit germany
battle of the bulge
the german counterattack on d-day, the germans caught the allies by surprise, created a bulge in the american lines and captured several key towns
V-E Day May, 1945
the day the allies won victory in europe, germany had surrendered
new president that saw to the final victory of WWII after FDR
a strategy used by the US capturing some Japanese held islands and ignoring others in a steady path toward Japan,
pilots that deliberately crashed their planes into american ships
General Douglas MacArthur
retook the phillipines
the atomic bomb was created
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
the atomic bomb wad dropped on these cities
Emperor Hirohito and V-J Day surrender
emperor Hirohito decided to surrender after the declaration of war from the USSR and the dropping of the atomic bombs, victory over japan,
before: Stalin wanted it because it would force hitler to take men who were fighting the soviet union to fight on the other front
after: thought the allies needed to be more prepared (to expensive and risky)
Summarize the arguments for and against an Allied invasion of France before 1944.
yes because only two beaches were highly guarded
no because there were German bases and they spend 4 years fortifying that border
Was the D-Day Landing at Normandy, France on June 6, 1944 easy to accomplish? Explain.
the germans dressed as allies and infiltrated which created a bulge but the line did not break
How did the Battle of the Bulge get its name, and what was the ultimate outcome?
mussolini was hanged and dismembered
hitler committed suicide
FDR brain hemorrhage before the war was over
Hirohito surrendered but still remained the emperor
What was the fate of the following leaders: Mussolini, Hitler, Franklin Roosevelt, Hirohito
the first nuclear bomb was dropped on japan so they would end the war
Describe the situation in Japan as the American forces got closer.
the testing of the first atomic bomb
What happened at Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945, and how will this event affect the war against Japan?
became a superpower
What effect do you think possession of the atomic bomb will have on the role of the United States in the postwar world?
the big three agreed that Poland Bulgaria and Romania would hold free elections, stalin later reneged this promise
countries come out of the war strong and dominate the postwar world
signed by the US, a treaty designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs
an organization where many believed would succeed where the league of nations failed, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to write the charter for the UN, was organized on the basis of cooperation between the great powers, not on the absolute equality of all nations, all member nations sat on the great assembly, the five major WWII allies (china, US, USSR, Britain, and France) were assigned permanent seats on the most powerful arm of the UN (the security council)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
issued by the UN, it condemned slavery and torture, upholds freedom of speech and religion, and affirms that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and his family, it has proved difficult to enforce
repeatedly violated by the axis powers, an international agreement governing the humane treatments of wounded soldiers and POWs
the allies prosecuted the Nazis for war crimes, many nazis claim they were just taking out orders
Europe and Japan lay in ruins
soviets dominate eastern Europe
america becomes a world power
AA's gain momentum to pursue civil rights
US remains a global superpower
US government plays a large role in guiding the nations economy
cold war begins
European colonies gradually gain independence
What were the major immediate and long-term effects of World War II?
soviets turn against the US after
Identify one possible postwar consequence of the Allied disagreements at Yalta and Potsdam.
upervised the writing of a new constitution
abolished armed forces except for purposes of defense
gave women the right to vote
enacted democratic reforms
established the groundwork for full economic recovery
How did General MacArthur influence post-war Japan?
it was based on cooperation, thought not being involved in the league of nations led to the rise of fascism
Why do you think Americans supported participation in the UN after World War II when they had opposed participation in the League of Nations after World War I?
defined themselves as democratic tolerant and peaceful
Summarize the key points of the section "A New American Identity" pp. 502-3.
Yalta: it was agreed that the countries of eastern europe (poland, Bulgaria, and Romania) would have free elections to determine their new government, but the red army was already occupying these countries and stalin wanted to bring them into the soviet union which he did
Tehran: the big three decided to open a two front war to germany
Postan: allies powers wanted unconditional surrender of Japan and worked out what was to happen to Germany
what was decided at Yalta, Tehran, and Postan
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