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Head & Neck Anatomy Chapter 3 Bones
Fehrenbach & Herring: Chapter 3
Terms in this set (147)
What is the general term for an area of bone that consists of a flat, bony structure?
What is the general term for any type of bony prominence?
What is the general term for a relatively large convex bone prominence that is usually involved in joints?
What is the general term for a rounded surface projecting from a bone located by a neck?
What is the general term for a large, often rough prominence on bone that usually serves as an attachment for muscles or tendons?
What is the general term for a bone that is shaped like a bridge, with a bowlike outline?
What is the general term for a hornlike prominence on a bone?
What two general terms can be used to describe a rounded elevation on the bony surface?
tubercle or eminence
What is a general term for a prominent, often roughened border or ridge on a bone?
What is the general term for a small, straight ridge on bone?
What is a general term for an abrupt prominence on bone that may be blunt or sharply pointed?
Name four types of bony depressions and state which one is generally considered deeper (include their plural forms)
1. Incisura 2 notch 3sulcus (plural, sulci) 4 fossa (plural, fossae) **generally deeper
What is a general term for an indentation at the edge of the bone?
What is a shallow depression or groove on bone that usually marks the course of a blood vessel?
Name six types of bony openings
1 foramen 2 canal 3 meatus 4 fissure 5 ostium 6 aperture
What is the term for a short, windowlike opening in the bone?
What is the term for a longer, narrow, tubelike opening in the bone?
Which bone opening is a type of canal?
What is the term for a narrow, cleft like opening in the bone?
Which bone opening is small and also serves as an entrance into a hollow organ or canal?
What is another general term used for an opening or orifice in bone?
What is the area of the skeleton where bones are joined to each other?
What is the term for a union of bones joined by fibrous tissue?
How are the bones of the skull divided?
Facial bones and skull bones
Name the sutures of the skull bones and what bones they join.
Coronal suture- frontal and parietal bones, sagittal suture- parietal bones, lambdoidal suture- occipital and parietal bones, temporozygomatic suture- zygomatic and temporal bones, median palatine suture- palatine bones, transverse palatine suture- maxilliae and palatine bones.
Name the facial bones of the skull.
vomer, paired lacrimal bones, paired nasal bones, paired inferior nasal conchae, paired zygomatic bones, paired maxillary bones, and mandible.
Name the bones that form the orbit and what portion they form (discuss the four walls and apex).
Roof or superior wall- orbital plates of the frontal bone, medial wall- ethmoid and lacrimal bones, lateral wall- zygomatic and sphenoid bones, apex or base- sphenoid and palatine bones, inferior wall- maxillae.
What is the term for the round opening in the orbital apex? What passes through it?
Optic canal, lies between the 2 roots of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, the 2nd cranial (optic) nerve, and the ophthalmic artery.
Describe the superior orbital fissure and its location, as well as what passes through it.
Lateral to the optic canal is the curved, slit like opening, between the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. The 3rd cranial (oculomotor) nerve, the 4th cranial (trochlear) nerve, the 6th cranial (abducent) nerve, and then ophthalmic nerve (from the 5th cranial or trigeminal nerve) and vein travel through this fissure.
Describe the inferior orbital fissure and its location, as well as what travels through it.
between the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and the maxilla, the infraorbital and zygomatic nerves, branches of the maxillary nerve, the infraorbital artery, and the inferior ophthalmic vein.
What is the anterior opening of the nasal cavity?
Piriform aperture is large and triangular
What bones are at the junction formed by the nasion?
The frontal and nasal bones
What bones form the bridge of the nose?
The paired nasal bones
What bones makes up the lateral boundaries of the nasal cavity?
the maxilla and ethmoid
What are the three projecting structures that create the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
The superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae
Which extend inward from the maxilla?
Inferior nasal conchae
What is the term for the groove beneath each nasal conchae? What is the function of their openings?
nasal meatus, the opening through which the paranasal sinuses or nasolacrimal duct communicates w/ the nasal cavity
What is the vertical partition of the nasal cavity and what bones form its anterior and posterior portions?
The nasal septum, anteriorly- nasal cartilage inferiorly, and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone superiorly, the posterior portions of the nasal septum are formed by the vomer.
Discuss the temporal lines and where they are located.
On the lateral external surface, 2 separate parallel, crossing both the frontal and parietal bones. The superior ridge is the superior temporal lines, and the inferior ridge is the inferior temporal line, which is the superior boundary of the temporal fossa and where the fan shaped temporalis muscle attaches.
Name the cranial bones.
Occipital, frontal, paired parietal bones, paired temporal bones, sphenoid, ethmoid.
Discuss the fossae of the skull and where they are located.
Temporal fossa- seen laterally is formed by several bones and contains the body of the temporalis muscle, inferior to the temporal fossa is the infratemporal fossa, deep to the infratemporal fossa is the pterygopalatine fossae.
What is the term for the cheek bone area? What suture is located on it? Which bones make up this area?
The zygomatic arch, the temporozygomatic suture, the temporal process of the zygomatic bone, and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. Serves as an origin for the masseter muscle.
The temporomandibular joint is an articulation between what?
The temporal bone and the mandible.
Where is the hard palate located? Which teeth are located near it? What bone borders it?
The anterior portion of the skull's inferior aspect bordered by the alveolar process of the maxilla, with its maxillary teeth. The hard palate is formed by the 2 palatine processes of the maxillae and the 2 horizontal plates of the palatine bones.
What sutures are located on the hard palate? The articulation is shown between what bones?
The median palatine suture, a midline articulation between the 2 palatine processes of the maxillae anteriorly and the 2 horizontal plates of the palatine bones posteriorly, and the transverse palatine suture, an articulation between the 2 palatine processes of the maxillae and the 2 horizontal plates of the palatine bones.
What is located on the posterior border of the hard palate? What bones form these structures?
The inferior border of the 2 funnel shapes cavities, the posterior nasal apertures or choanae. The superior border of each aperture is formed by the vomer and the sphenoid bone. The posterior edge of the vomer forms the medial border of the posterior nasal apertures. The posterior nasal apertures are the posterior openings of the nasal cavity.
What small canal is located on the superior border of each of the structures that are located on the posterior border of the palate? What do they open into? Also, what passes through the canal?
The pterygoid canal that extends into the pterygopalatine fossa and carries the pterygoid nerve and blood vessels.
What are the processes and plates of the sphenoid bone?
The lateral borders of the posterior nasal apertures are formed on each side by the pterygoid process. Each process consists of a thin medial pterygoid plate and a flattened lateral pterygoid plate.
What fossa is located between the plates of the sphenoid bone?
Between the lateral and medial plates called the pterygoid fossa.
What is the term for the curved process on the inferior portion of the medial plate of the sphenoid bone?
What is the larger anterior oval opening on the sphenoid bone? What passes through it?
The foramen ovale, the mandibular division of the 5th cranial or trigeminal nerve.
What is the smaller and more posterior opening on the sphenoid bone? What passes through it? Also, what spine is located nearby?
The foramen spinosum, which carries the middle meningeal artery into the cranial cavity. This is named from the spine of the sphenoid bone which is at the posterior extremity of the sphenoid bone.
What is the large, irregularly shaped, cartilage-filled opening on the external surface of the skull?
What is the more posterior opening in the petrous portion of the temporal bone? What passes through it? Also, what pointed bony projection is nearby?
The carotid canal, which carries the internal carotid artery and sympathetic carotid plexus. The bony projection that is lateral and posterior is the styloid process.
What opening is immediately posterior to the more posterior opening in the petrous portion of the temporal bone? What passes through it from the skull to the face?
Stylomastoid formen, the 7th cranial or facial nerve.
What opening is medial to the styloid process and is easier to see if you tilt the skull to one side? Also, what passes through it?
The jugular foramen, which the internal jugular vein and the 9th cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve, the 10th cranial (vagus) nerve, and 11th cranial (accessory) nerve pass through.
What is the largest opening on the inferior view of the skull? In what bone is it located? What passes through it?
The foramen magnum, in the occipital bone, the spinal cord, vertebral arteries, and the 11th cranial (accessory) nerve pass through it.
State where the cribriform plate is located, as well as what passes through it.
The ethmoid bone, with foramina for the 1st cranial (olfactory) nerve.
State where the foramen rotundum is located, as well as what passes through it.
The sphenoid bone, the maxillary division of the 5th cranial (trigeminal) nerve.
State where the hypoglossal canal is located, as well as what passes through it.
The occipital bone, the 12th cranial (hypoglossal) nerve.
Where is the internal acoustic meatus located? What passes through it?
In the petrous part of the temporal bone, the 7th cranial (facial) nerve and the 8th cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve.
Is the occipital bone paired or single? With what bones does it articulate?
Single, articulates with the paired parietal, the paired temporal, and the sphenoid bones of the skull. And also articulates with the 1st cervical vertebrae (atlas).
What are the curved and smooth paired projections on the occipital bone that are lateral and anterior to the foramen magnum? Also, with what do they articulate?
The paired occipital condyles, they articulate with the atlas.
What is the four-sided plate on the occipital bone that is anterior to the foramen magnum? What is its midline projection?
The basilar portion, the midline projection is the pharyngeal tubercle.
What are the paired openings in the skull that are anterior and lateral to foramen magnum on the occipital bones? What passes through them?
The paired hypoglossal canals, the 12th (hypoglossal) nerve passes through them.
What is the part of the occipital bone that forms the medial portion of the jugular foramen? With what bone does it articulate?
The jugular notch of the occipital bone, the jugular notch of the temporal bone
What bone forms the forehead and the superior portion of the orbits? Also, with what bones does it articulate?
The frontal bone, it articulates with the paired parietal bones, the sphenoid bone, the paired lacrimal bones, the paired nasal bones, the ethmoid bone, the paired zygomatic bones, and the paired maxillae.
Name the location of the frontal sinuses.
The frontal bone, behind the supraorbital ridges
What are the curved elevations over the superior portion of the orbit? On what bone are they located? Also, at what age and gender are they more prominent?
The supraorbital ridges, subadjacent to the eyebrows, and are more prominent in adult males.
When palpated, what bony demarcation causes patient discomfort and is located on the medial portion of the curved elevations superior to the orbit? Also, what passes through them?
The supraorbital notch, the supraorbital artery and nerve travel from the orbit to the forehead.
What landmark is located between the curved elevations superior to the orbits? What does it correspond to on the surface features of an adult and child?
The glabella, which is flat in children and adult females, and forms a rounded prominence in adult males.
What projection is located on the frontal bone that is lateral to the orbit?
The zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
What depression is located just inside the lateral portion of the supraorbital ridge? In life, what did it contain? Also, what did it produce?
The lacrimal fossa, it contains the lacrimal gland, which produces lacrimal fluid (tears), which the lacrimal fluid then drains into the nasal cavity through the nasolacrimal duct.
What bones are paired and articulate with each other at the sagittal suture? Also, with what other bones do they articulate?
The parietal bones, they also articulate with the occipital bone, the frontal bone, the paired temporal bones, and the sphenoid bone.
What bones form the lateral walls of the skull? With what bones do they articulate? Also, of what three portions are they composed?
The temporal bones, they articulate with one zygomatic and one parietal bone each, and the occipital bone and sphenoid bone, and the mandible. The 3 portions are squamous, which is the flat portion, the tympanic, which is the small, irregularly shaped portion associated with the ear canal, and the petrous which is inferiorly located and helps formed the cranial floor.
What bones and their specific portions form the zygomatic arch of the face?
The squamous portion of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
What is the landmark on the inferior portion of the temporal bone that is part of the articulation of the temporomandibular joint?
The articular fossa
What landmark on the temporal bone is anterior to the articulation portion of the temporomandibular joint? Which one is posterior?
Anteriorly is the articular eminence and posteriorly is the postglenoid process, both are portions of the squamous portion of the temporal bone that articulate with the mandible at the TMJ.
What bony demarcation is located posterior to the articulation portion of the temporal bone through which the chorda tympani nerve emerges?
The petrotympanic fissure
What large, roughened projection of the temporal bone is posterior to the external acoustic meatus? Of what is it composed? Also, for what purposes does it serve?
The mastoid process, which is composed of mastoid air cells, it communicates with the middle ear cavity, it also serves as a site for attachment of the large muscles of the neck such as the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
What bony demarcation on the large, roughened projection of the temporal bone posterior to the external acoustic meatus is medial? What bony demarcation is inferior and medial?
The mastoid notch is medial, inferior and medial is the styloid process.
What is the opening on the temporal bone that carries the facial nerve? Why is it named as such?
Stylomastoid foramen, is it named for its location between the styloid process and mastoid process.
What single cranial bone is both midline and complex and contains the superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, and the foramen spinosum?
The sphenoid bone
Name the specific portion of the bone where the sphenoid sinuses are located.
The body of the sphenoid bone.
Explain the relationship between the sphenoid bone processes.
The anterior process is the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, which comprises of the base of the orbital apex, the posterolateral process is the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and inferiorly to the greater wing of the sphenoid bone is the pterygoid process, an area of attachment of some muscles of mastication.
What cranial bone is single, in the midline of the skull, and adjoins the vomer at its inferior and posterior border? Also, with what other bones does it articulate?
Ethmoid bone, it articulates with the frontal, sphenoid, lacrimal, and maxillary bones as well.
In relation to the cribriform plate, where is the perpendicular plate? What midline nasal feature does it help form?
The perpendicular plate is perpendicular to the horizontal cribriform plate, and aids the vomer and nasal septal cartilage in forming the nasal septum.
In what specific location are the ethmoid sinuses?
In the lateral mass of the ethmoid.
What is the vertical midline continuation of the perpendicular plate into the cranial cavity? What is its function?
The crista galli, it serves as an attachment for layers covering the brain.
What part of the orbit does the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone form? Where is its location in relation to the nasal conchae?
The medial orbital wall, which is medial to the nasal conchae.
What single facial bone forms the posterior portion of the nasal cavity? With what bones does it articulate? Also, what portion is free of any bony articulation?
The vomer, it articulates with the ethmoid bone on its anterosuperior border, the nasal cartilage anteriorly, the palatine bones and maxillae inferiorly, and the sphenoid bone on its posterosuperior border. The posteroinferior border is free of bony articulation.
What paired facial bones are irregular thin plates of bone that form a small portion of the anterior medial wall of the orbit?
The lacrimal bones
Where is the nasolacrimal duct located? What function does it serve?
It is formed at the junction of the lacrimal and maxillary bones, lacrimal fluid or tears from the lacrimal gland are drained through this duct into the inferior nasal meatus.
What paired facial bones form the bridge of the nose? To what opening in the skull are they superior? Also, with what bones do they articulate?
The nasal bones, superior to the piriform aperature, they articulate with the frontal bone superiorly, and the maxillae laterally.
What pair of facial bones project off the maxilla to form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity? Of what type of bone are they composed? Also, with what bones do they articulate?
The inferior nasal conchae which are composed of fragile, thin, spongy bone curved onto itself like a scroll. They articulate with the ethmoid, lacrimal, palatine, and maxillary bones.
What pair of facial bones forms the cheek bones? With what bones do these bones articulate?
The zygomatic bones, which articulate with the frontal, temporal, sphenoid, and maxillary bones.
What bone and its specific portions form the anterior lateral orbital wall?
The frontal process of the zygomatic bone.
What bone and its specific portions form the infraorbital rim?
The maxillary process of the zygomatic bone.
What skull bone could be considered a facial bone and consists of a horizontal and vertical plate? Also, with what bones do they articulate?
The palatine bones, they articulate with each other, the maxillae, and the sphenoid.
What plates contribute a small lip of bone to the orbital apex?
The vertical plates of the palatine bones.
Discuss the median palatine suture and the bones involved in its formation. Also, discuss to what clinical landmark it is related.
The 2 horizontal plates articulate with each other at the posterior portion of the median palatine suture, and they articulate with the palatine processes of the maxillae anteriorly. The median palatine raphe covers this suture.
State the usual location of the greater and lesser palatine foramina. Also, discuss what each transmits. To which canals are they related?
The greater palatine foramina is located in the posterolateral region of each of the palatine bones usually at the apex of the maxillary third molar, which transmits the greater palatine nerve and blood vessels and is a landmark for administration of the greater palatine local anesthetic block. The lesser palatine foramina, transmits the lesser palatine nerve and blood vessels to the soft palate and tonsils. Both foramina are openings of the pterygopalatine canal that carries the descending palatine nerves and blood vessels from the pterygopalatine fossa to the palate.
With which bones does the upper jaw articulate?
They articulate with the frontal, lacrimal, nasal, inferior nasal conchae, vomer, sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine and zygomatic bones.
What specific portion of the upper jaw contains the maxillary sinuses? What are its surfaces?
The body of the maxilla contains the maxillary sinuses, its surfaces are orbital, nasal, infratemporal, and facial.
What portion of the upper jaw forms a portion of the medial orbital rim? What other bones are involved in this formation?
The frontal process of the maxilla articulates with the frontal bone to form the medial orbital rim with the lacrimal bone on its anterior surface.
What landmark separates the upper jaw from the sphenoid bone? What passes through it?
Inferior orbital fissure, it carries the zygomatic nerves, infraorbital artery, and inferior ophthalmic vein.
What is the groove in the floor of the orbital surface? What canal does it become?
The infraorbital sulcus
What is the single opening on the facial surface of each upper jaw side that is a landmark for a dental block and causes a mild ache when palpated?
The infraorbital foramen
What landmark on the upper jaw is posterosuperior to the roots of the maxillary canine teeth?
The canine fossa
What bone covers each tooth of the upper jaw?
The alveolar process
Is the facial bone of the upper jaw more or less dense than the lower jaw's facial bone?
What opening is located on the anterior midline portion of the palatine process? What does it carry? Also, what clinical landmark is present over it?
The incisive foramen, the branches of the right and left nasopalatine nerves and blood vessels from the nasal cavity to the palate.
What landmark is on the posterior portion of the upper jaw and has a rounded, roughened elevation? What perforates it?
The maxillary tuberosity, one or more posterior superior alveolar foramina.
What bone is the only freely movable bone of the skull?
What is the faint ridge on the external surface of the lower jaw midline?
The mandibular symphysis
What is the bony prominence of the chin?
The mental protuberance
What is the opening on the external surface of the lower jaw that is typically between the apices of the first and second mandibular premolars? What does it carry?
The mental foramen, the mental nerve and blood vessels into the mandibular canal.
What is the heavy horizontal portion of the lower jaw inferior to the mental foramen called?
The body of the mandible
What portion of the lower jaw contains the roots of the teeth?
The alveolar process
What is the stout, flat plate of the lower jaw? From what does it extend upward and backward? Also, what is the term for its anterior border?
The ramus, from the body of the mandible, the coronoid process.
What is the concave forward curve on the anterior border of the lower jaw that serves as a landmark for a dental block?
The coronoid notch
At what bony demarcation does the ramus join the body of the mandible?
The external oblique line
What depression is located between the coronoid process and the condyle of the mandible?
The mandibular notch
What are the small midline projections on the internal surface of the mandible? What is their function?
Genial tubercles or mental spines, a muscle attachment area.
What is the rounded, roughened area on each lateral edge of the mandible that is just posterior to the most distal molar?
The retromolar triangle
What landmark is located on the medial surface of the body of the mandible? What is its function?
The mylohyoid line or internal oblique ridge, point of attachment for the mylohyoid muscle
What shallow depression is located just inferior to the posterior mandibular teeth? Which similar depression is superior to the anterior portion of the mylohyoid line?
The submandibular fossa, the sublingual fossa
What is the opening on the internal surface of the ramus and to what canal is it connected? Also, what passes through it?
The mandibular foramen, then mandibular canal, the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels.
What bony demarcation on the mandible serves as an attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament?
What groove is near the mandibular foramen? What travels in it?
The mylohyoid groove, the mylohyoid nerve and blood vessels.
What is the triangular depression on the anterior surface of the condyle?
The pterygoid fovea
Discuss what happens to the sinuses when they become involved with allergies or infections, or both.
They become inflamed and congested with mucus as in primary sinusitis.
What is an abnormal hole in the wall of the sinus? Why does it occur?
A perforation, due to secondary sinusitis.
How does each frontal sinus communicate with and drain into the nasal cavity? Where does it drain?
The frontonasal duct, into the nasal cavity through the middle nasal meatus
How does each sphenoid sinus communicate with and drain into the nasal cavity? Where does it drain?
Into the nasal cavity through an opening superior to each superior nasal concha.
Where do the posterior ethmoid air cells open? Where do the middle and anterior ethmoid cells open?
The posterior open into the superior meatus of the nasal cavity, the middle and anterior open into the middle meatus.
Describe the shape of each maxillary sinus and their specific portions.
What can clinically happen because the maxillary sinus is in direct contact with the mucosa of the maxillary sinus?
Secondary sinusitis and perforation due to infection, trauma or extraction.
How does the maxillary sinus drain and how does the position of the ostium relate to infection?
the middle meatus on each side, the ostium of each sinus is higher than the floor of the sinus cavity.
Which fossa is flat and fan shaped on the lateral surface of the skull? What are its boundaries? Also, what bones make up its area?
the temporal fossa, its boundaries include superiorly and posteriorly- the inferior temporal line, anteriorly- the fronal process of the zygomatic bone, medially- the surface of the temporal bone, and laterally- the zygomatic arch. Inferiorly- the infratemporal crest on the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. It is formed by the zygomatic, frontal, greather wing of the sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones.
What is located in this fan-shaped depression on the lateral surface of the skull?
a narrow strip of the parietal bone, the squamous portion of the temporal bone, the temporal surface of the frontal bone, and the temporal surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. It contains the body of the temporalis muscle and area blood vessels and nerves.
What fossa is located inferior to the anterior part of the temporal fossa? What bones make up its area? Also, what are its boundaries?
the infratemporal fossa, the boundaries include superiorly- the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, anteriorly- the maxillary tuberosity, medially- the lateral pterygoid, and laterally- the ramus of the mandible and the zygomatic arch. It contains the mandibular division of the 5th cranial or trigeminal nerve (including the alveolar and lingual nerves), the pterygoid plexus and pterygoid muscles.
What fossa of the skull is a cone-shaped depression between the pterygoid process and the maxillary tuberosity?
Which cervical vertebra articulates with the skull?
atlas (first cervical vertebra)
Which cervical vertebra is characterized by a den? With what does it articulate?
axis (second cervical vertebra)
dens articulates w/anterior arch of the first cerv. vertebra
What bone is suspended in the neck and forms the base of the tongue and larynx? What function does it serve? Also, what are its specific portions?
muscle attachment important for mastication, swallowing & speech *body of hyoid, greater & lesser cornu
Name some normal variations of bone in the orofacial region that involve bony enlargement.
palatal or mandibular tori
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Head & Neck Anatomy Table 3-3
Head and neck anatomy Chap 4
Intro to Anatomy part 2 - Directional terms
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