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42 terms

RV Myers Psychology for AP - Unit 1

STUDY
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empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind (Titchener)
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish (James)
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science, overt that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth (Maslow, Rogers)
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
Charles Darwin
Evolution, natural selection
B.F. Skinner
Behaviorist
John Watson & Rosalie Rayner
Behaviorist, "Little Albert"
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic, Unconscious
Margarent Washburn
1st women Psychology Ph.D.
Mary Whiton Calkins
1st women President of the American Psychology Association
William James
Factionalism, 1st Psychology Textbook,
Wilhelm Wundt
1st Psychology Lab, structuralism
Edward Titchener
Structuralism, introspection
Ivan Pavlov
Behaviorist, conditioning
Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
Humanistic
SQ3R
Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse (Objectives), Review (Quizlet)