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the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind (Titchener)
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish (James)
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science, overt that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth (Maslow, Rogers)
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
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