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Ecosystems and Biomes
Terms in this set (48)
Which organism in the food web is sometimes a first-level consumer and sometimes a second-level consumer? Explain.
A mouse is sometimes a first-level (it eats grass) and sometimes a second-level (it eats grass which is eaten by a grasshopper.)
Name all the organisms in a food chain. Start with producer and end with the top-level consumer.
Alfalfa, grasshopper, mouse, hawk
Organisms that make their own food.
Organisms that obtain energy by feeding on other organisms.
Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the environment.
Consumers that eat only animals.
Consumers that eat only plants.
Consumers that eat both plants and animals.
Consumers that feed on the bodies of dead organisms.
What is the source of energy for the process of evaporation?
What happens to rainwater that falls on land?
It becomes ground water or surface run off.
How are oxygen and carbon cycled between plants and animals?
Plants take in carbon dioxide from the air, use the carbon to make their own food, release oxygen as a waste, animals breathe in the oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
Which cycle is shown in the diagram above? Name process.
Water cycle: Evaporation from the ocean. Evaporation from the plants. Evaporation from the lake. Condensation. Precipitation.
Means of dispersal:
Wind, Water, Living Things
Describe three ways plant seeds are dispersed by other organisms.
1. Spread by animals eating seeds and leaving them in their droppings.
2. Stick to the fur of animals.
3. Humans take seeds to a new area.
How does competition limit the dispersal of organisms?
When organisms move to a new area they must compete for food, water, space, etc. With the existing organisms that may out compete the new organisms.
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather is the day-to-day conditions of temperature. Climate is the typical conditions of temperature, precipitation, etc, over a long period of time.
A species that is carried into a new location by people.
The study of where organisms live.
The movement of organisms from one place to another.
The very slow movement of the continents.
How does climate affect the type of biome found in an area?
The temperature range and average yearly, determines the type of organisms that are able to survive in an area.
What are two adaptations that enable mammals to survive cold winters?
Hibernation, heavy fur or hair, layers of fat to keep warm.
Why are tropical rain forests such rich habitats for many species of animals?
They have moderate temperature, and large amounts of rainfall, which makes lots of plants available for food.
Why does a deciduous forest have a variety of habitats?
Because there is a wide variety of plant life.
Deciduous Forest (climate and organisms)
Warm summers, cold winters; receives at least 50 cm of precipitation per year; trees shed their leaves and grow new ones each year.
Tundra (climate and organisms)
Hot in daytime, cool or cold at night; very dry; organisms are adapted to extreme temperatures and dry conditions.
Rain forest (climate and organisms)
Warm, rainy summers; very cold winters with heavy snow; trees produce cones with seeds that are eaten by many animals.
Desert (climate and organisms)
Warm temperatures do not vary much throughout the year; very wet and humid; greater variety of species that any other biome.
Boreal Forest (climate and organisms)
Extremely cold winters, warmer summers; windy; very dry; no trees, only low-growing plants.
Grassland (climate and organisms)
Receives between 25 and 75 centimeters of rain each year; populated by grasses and many large herbivores.
What are the four main types of freshwater ecosystems?
Streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes.
What conditions do organisms face in the intertidal zone?
Pounding waves, sudden changes in water levels and temperatures because of high and low tides.
Why is the neritic zone particularly rich in living things?
Sunlight passes through the shallow water following photosynthesis to happen.
The point along the shoreline between the highest high-tide line and the lowest low-tide line.
The interdial zone
The point where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
Out in the open ocean where light penetrates only to a depth of a few hundred meters.
The open-ocean zone.
A region of shallow water below the low-tide line that extends over the continental shelf.
The neritic zone
Almost totally dark. (which zone?)
The deep zone.
Consumer that eats both plants and animals.
Carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms.
Process by which a liquid changes to a gas.
A region of shallow water below the low-tide zone that extends over the continental shelf.
Movement of organisms from one place to another.
Typical weather pattern over a long period of time in an area.
Group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms.
Permanently frozen soil found in the tundra.
Point where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of an ocean.
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