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175 terms

Psych 3,4,5,6

STUDY
PLAY
Norm-page 86
an avg. or standard measurement calculated from the measurement of many individuals within a specific group or population
Heading sparing-page 87
a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth the brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition
Neuron-page 88
one of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system especially in the brain
Cortex-page 88
the outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals most thinking feeling and sensing involve the cortex sometimes called the NEOCORTEX
Axon-page 88
a fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neurons to the dendrites of other neurons
Dendrite-page 88
a fiber that extends from a neuron and recieves electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
Synapse-page 88
the intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons
Neurotransmitter-page 88
a brain chemical that carries infromation from the axon of sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron
Prefrontal cortex- page 90
The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation planning and impulse control
Shaken baby syndrome-page 91
a life threatening injury that occurs when an infant if forcefully shaken back an fourth a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections
REM-page 93
rapid eye movement sleep a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids dreaming and rapid brain waves
Reflex-page 94
an unlearned involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a particular stimulus a reflex is an automatic response that is built into the nervous system and occurs without conscious thought
Gross motor skills-page 95
physcial abilites involving large body movements such as walking and jumping-gross means big
Fine motor skills-page 96
physical abilities involving small body movements especially of the hands and fingers such as drawing and picking up a coin fine means small
Sensation-page 97
the response of a sensory system eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose when it detects a stimulus
Perception-page 97
The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation
Binocular vision-page 98
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image
Immunization-page 100
a process that stimulates the bodys immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. immunization may be accomplished either naturally by having the disease or through vaccination often by having an injection
SIDS-page 103
sudden infant death syndrom a situation in which a seemingly healthy infant at least 2 months old suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while sleep
Co-sleeping page 103
a custome in which parents and their children sleep together in the same bed also called bed sharing
Sensorimotor intelligence-page 105
piagets term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development
Assimilation-page 106
piagets term for a type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into as assimilate with old ideas
Accommodation-page 106
piagets term for type of adapation in which old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new experiences
Object permanence-page 107
The realication that objects including people still exist when they can no longer be seen touched or heard
Little scientist-page 108
the stage five toddler age 12-18 months who experiments without anticipating the results using trial and error in active and creative exploration
Information processing theory-page 108
a perspective that compares human thinking processes by analogy to computer analysis of data including sensory input connections stored memories and output
Visual cliff-page 109
an experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another
Reminder session- page 111
a perceptual experience tha is intended to help a person recollect an idea a thing or an experience without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment
Child directed speech- page 112
The high pitched simplified and repetitive way adults speak to infants also called baby talk or motherese
Babbling-page 113
the extended repetioniton of certain syllables such as ba ba ba that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old
Naming explosion- page 113
a sudden increase in an infants vocabulary especially in the number of nouns that begins at about 28 months of age
Holophrase-page 114
a single word that isused to express a complete meaningful thought
Language acqusition device- page 117
chomiskys term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language including the basic aspects of grammar vocab, and intonation
Social smile-page 124
a smile evoked by a human face normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth
Stranger wariness- page 125
an infants expression of concern a quiet stare when clinging to a familar person or a look of sadness when a stranger appears
Seperation anxiety-page 125
an infants distress when a familar caregiver leaves most obvious between 9 and 14 months
Self awarness-page 126
a persons realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body mind and actions are seperate from those other people
Trust versus mistrust-page 131
ericksons first crisis of psychosocial development infants learn basic trust if the would is a secure place where their basic needs for food comfort attention and so on are met
Autonomy versus shame and doubt- page 131
ericksons second crisis of psychosocial development toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies
Social learning- page 132
the acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others
Working model-page 133
in cognitive theory a set of assumptions that are the individual uses or to organize perceptions and experiences for examples a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidece that this working model of human behavior is erroneous
Ethnotheory-page 133
a theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture
Temperament-page 134
inborn differences between one person and another in emotions activity and self regulation temperament is epigenetic origniating in the genes but affected by child rearing practices
Big five-page 135
The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout life openness conscientiousness extroversion agreebleness and neuroticism
Proximal parenting-page136
caregiving practice that involve being physically close to the baby with frequent holding and touching
Distal parenting-page 136
caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby providing distant from the baby providing toys food and face to face communciation with minimal holding and touching
Goodness of fit
a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between and individual and his or her social context including family school and community
Synchrony-page 140
a coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant
Still face technique-page 141
an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face to face interaction with an infant
Attachment-page 141
according to ainsworth an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time
Secure attachment-page 142
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her cargiver
Insecure avoidant attachment-page 143
a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregivers presence departure or return
Insecure resistnat/ambivalent attachment-page 143
a pattern of attachment in which an infants anxiety and uncertainity are evident as when the infant becomes very upset at separtion from the caregiver and both reisists and seeks contact on reunion
Disorganized attachment-page 143
a type of attachment that is marked by an infants inconsistent reactions to the caregivers departure and return
Strange situation-page 143
a laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants reactions to the stress various adults comings and goings in an unfamilar playroom
Social referencing-page 145
seeking information about how to react to an unfamilar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone elses expressions and reactions that other person becomes a social reference
Family day care- page 147
child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it
Center day care-page 147
child care that occurs in a place especially designated for the purpose where several paid adults care for many children usually the children are grouped by age the day care center is licensed and providers are trained and certified in child development
Myelination-page166
the process by which axons become coated with myelin a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
Corpus collosum-page 167
a long thick band of nerve fiver that connects the left and right hemisperes of the brain and allows communication between them
Lateralization-page167
literally sidedness referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain with one side dominant for each activity the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa
Perseveration-page 168
the tendency to preservere in or stick to one thought or action for a long time
Amygdala-page 169
a tiny brain structure that registers emotions particulary fear and anxiety
Hippocampus-page 169
a brain structure that is central processor of memory especially memory for locations
Hypothalamus-page 169
a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
Preoperational intellignece-page 171
piagents term for cognitve development between the ages of about 2 and 6 it includes language and imagination but logical operational thinking is not yet possible
Centration-171
a characterisitc of preoperational though whereby a young child focuses on one idea excluding all others
Egocentrism-page 171
piagets term for young childrens tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective
Focus on apperance-page 171
a characterisitcs of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent
Static reasoning-page 171
a characterisitics of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes whatever is now has always been and always will be
Irreversibility-page 171
a characteristic of preoperational though whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone a thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occured
Conservation-page 173
the principle that the amount of a substance remains the same when its apperance changes
Animism-page 173
the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive
Apprentice in thinking-page 173
Vygotskys term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society
Zone of proximal development-page 174
vygotskys term for the skills cognitive as well as physcial that a person can excersize only with assistanace not yet independently
Scaffolding-page 174
temporary support that is tailored to a learners needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
Private speech-page 175
the internal dialogue tha occurs when people talk to themselves
Social mediation-page 175
human interaction that expands and advances understanding often through words that one person uses to explain something to another
Theory-theory-page 176
the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear
Theory of mind-page 177
a persons theory of what other people might be thinking in order to have a theory of mind children must realize that othe people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are that realization is seldom achieved before age 4
Fast mapping-page 179
the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning
Overregulation-page 180
the application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur making the language seem more regular than it actually is
Reggio emilia approach-page 184
a famous program of early childhood education that originated in the town of reggio emilia italy it encourages each childs creativity in a caregully designed settings
Project head start-page 186
the most widespread early childhood education program in the united states begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government
Injury control/harm reduction-page 188
practices that are aimed at antipating controlling and preventing dangerous activities these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place
Primary prevention-page 189
actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance such as injury disease or abuse
Secondary prevention-page 189
actions that avert harm in a high risk situation such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traffic lights at dangerous intersections
Tertiary prevention-page 189
actions such as immediate and effective medical treatment that are taken after an adverse event occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability
Child maltreatment-page 190
intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment or anyone under 18 years of age
Child abuse-page 190
deliberate action that is harmful to a childs physical emotional or sexual well being
Child neglect-page 190
failure to meet a childs basic physical educational or emotional needs
Substantiated maltreatment-page 191
harm or endangerment that has been reported investigated and verified
Permanency planning-page 193
an effort by child welfare authorities to find a long term libing situation that will provide stability and support for maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of cargiver or school which can ve particularly harmful to the child
Foster care-page 193
a leagal pblicity supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents custody and entrusted to another adult or family which is reimbrsed for expenses incurred in meeting the childs needs
Kinship care-page 193
a form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child usully a grandparent becomes the approved caregiver
Emotional Regulation-page 197
the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
Initiative verus guilt-198
ericksons third psychosocial crisis in which children undertake new skills and activites and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
Self esteem-page 198
a persons evaluation of his or her own worth either in specifics or in general
Self concept-page 198
a persons understanding of who he or she is incorportation self esteem physical apperance personality and various personal traits such as gender and size
Intrinsic motivation-page 200
a drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person such as the need to feel smart or competent
Extrinsic motivation-page 200
a drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have ones achievements rewarded from outside perhaps by receiviing material pssessions or another persons esteem
Psychopathology-page 201
an illness or disorder of the mind
Extermalizing problems-page 201
diffiulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physcial or verbal outbursts as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
Internalizing problems-page 202
difficultly with emotional regulation that involves turning ones emotional distress inward as by feeling excessively guilty ashamed or worthless
Sociodramatic play-page 207
pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create
Rough and tumble play- page 207
play that mimics aggression through wrestling chasing or hitting but in which there is no intent to harm
Authoritarian parenting- page 210
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards strict punishment of misconduct and little communication
Permissive parenting-page 210
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication vut little displine guidnace or control
Neglectful/ univolved parenting-page 210
an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their childrens lives
Empathy- page 215
the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person especially when the differ from ones own
Antipathy-page 215
feelings of dislike or even hatred toward another person
Prosocial behavior-page 215
actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them
Antisocial behavior-page 215
actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person
Instrumental aggression- page 215
hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it
reactive aggression- page 215
an impulsive retaliation for another persons intentional or accidental action verbal or physical
Relational aggression-page 215
nonphyscial act such as insults or rejections aimed at harming the social connection between the vicitm and the other people
Bullying aggression-page 215
unprovoked repeated physcial or verbal attack especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves
Psychological control-page 218
a disiplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents
Time out-page 218
a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time
Sex differences-page 221
Biological differences between males an dfemales in organs hormones and body shape
Gender differences-page 221
differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females
Phallic stage- page 222
freuds third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
Oedipus complex-page 222
the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers exclusive love
Superego-page 222
in psychoanalytic theory the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
Electra complex- page 222
the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers exclusive love
Identifiacation- page 222
an attempt to defend ones self concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else
Gender schema- page 224
a childs cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences which is based on his or her obsevations and experiences
Androgyny-page 225
a balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
At birth the avg. infants weighs
7 1/2 pounds
By 24 months, most children are about ____ percent of their adult height.
50 percent
Which of the following senses is the least developed at birth?
vision
An example of a fine motor skill is:
grabbing
When infants master the pincer movement, they can:
feed themselves
International health organizations recommend that mothers exclusively breast-feed for the first:
4-6 months
What is colostrum?
a thick, high-calorie fluid secreted by the woman's breasts for about the first three days following the birth of her child
Which substance is secreted from a woman's breasts for the first three days following birth?
colostrum
The experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden dropoff is referred to as a:
visual cliff
Piaget believed that object permanence emerges at about:
8 months
The results of subsequent experiments were inconsistent with the conclusions of Piaget by demonstrating that infants:
have some understanding of object permanence as young as 4½ months
Scholars have attempted to integrate theories of language development (social-pragmatic theory, innate abilities, and behaviorism) into one theory known as:
hybrid theory.
According to Chomsky's theory of language development, which factor predicts communication?
an innate ability
Which is TRUE of deaf babies and babbling
All babies, even deaf babies, babble
What accounts for the ethnic variations in the development of gross motor skills?
Cultural Patterns, Practice, and Genetics
Early sensation appears to be organized toward which two goals?
social interactions and comfort
DTaP vaccine protects against:
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis
Breast-feeding reduce the risk of:
Cancer, asthma, diabetes and others
Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:
Sensorimotor Intelligence
What occurs when infants change from sucking their mother's breast to sucking a pacifier?
adapatation
Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by:
New adaptation and anticipation
One-year-old Danielle watches her sister talk on a cell phone. The next day Danielle holds the cell phone to her ear as if she is using the phone. Danielle is demonstrating:
Deferred Imitation
The typical order of spoken language development is:
Reflexive, cooing, babbling and simple words
At birth, the brain has ___ of neurons
billions
A hypervigilant or emotionally flat response to stress later in life is a potential consequence of ___in infancy
An overabundance of stress hormones
Average newborn's length is approximately:
20 inches
The MMR vaccine protects against:
measles mumps rubella
A formula-fed baby is more likely to ___than a breast-fed baby
more allergies
Isaiah is 7 months old. His sister takes a toy and hides it behind her back. Isaiah cries and does not look for the toy. It is likely that he has not yet acquired:
Object Permanence
According to Chomsky's theory of language development, which factor predicts communication?
innate ability
Which of the following statements about neurons is true?
Most neurons are created before birth
Which term is used to describe the process in which unused neurons die?
pruning
Five year old Megan becomes furious after minor incidents with her peers. Her inability to deal with normal stress may be related to the ___of stress hormones in her brain during infancy
overproduction
Over the first few months of infancy, the amount of time spent in REM sleep:
decreases
What reflex is shown when a baby is startled?
moro reflex
Two fears that infants form at about 9 months are:
stranger wariness and separation anxiety.
An infant may see his or her own body as associated with the bodies of others because the boundaries between the sensory parts of the cortex are less distinct. This is referred to as:
cross-modal perception
Infants' understanding of themselves, demonstrated in their use of personal pronouns and the mirror test, is related to maturation of which part of the brain?
the left temporoparietal junction
The idea of a working model is from:
cognitive theory
When temperament is described as being "constitutionally based," this means that traits:
originate with one's genes.
According to the text, temperament involves:
a genetic predisposition in emotions, activity, and self-regulation.
A mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant is called:
synchrony.
How many 1-year-olds in the United States are in regularly scheduled nonmaternal care?
more than 50 percent
Which theorist is associated with a laboratory procedure called the Strange Situation?
Ainsworth
According to the text, psychosocial development is determined by:
all of the above
The case study of Jacob is an example of the importance of paying attention to deficits in a child's _____________ growth.
psychosocial
Synchrony, attachment, and _______________ are crucial to the psychosocial development of infants and toddlers.
social referencing