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kingdom, based on agriculture formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy


a coastal trading port in Africa that was one of the 30 coastal trading ports that flourished that were all tied together by coastal commerce and by an inland caravan trade

Columbian Exchange

biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to the new world; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred

Asante Empire

established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko Clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650


kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coast line and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.


the Swahili, Indian, Arabian merchants that established European styles clove plantations


Dutch settlers in Cape Colony, in Southern Africa

Great Trek

movement of Boer settlers in Cape colony of Southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal


wars of 19th century on Southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka revolutionized political organization of southern Africa


most powerful tribe; powerful military force until the 19th century


most powerful tribe; powerful military force until the 19th century
Francis Xavier - Spanish Jesuit missionary; worked in India in the 1540's among the outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites


first Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; resorted position of scholar gentry


Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under 3rd Ming Emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433; only Chinese attempt to create world wide trade empire

Matteo Ricci

a long with Adam Schall, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity


Japanese daimyo; first to make extensive used of fire arms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikiaga Shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command; killed in 1582

Ashikaga Shogunate

replaced the Kamakura Regime in Japan; ruled from 1336-1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center for imperial authority

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

general under Nobunaga; succeeded as leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to brake power of Daimyos; constructed a series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598

Tokugawa Ieyashu

vassal of Toyotomi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of Shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan

Tokugawa Shogunate

founded 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyashu made Shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan

El Mina

Portuguese factory along the coast of Africa; it help to contribute to African trade because it allowed the Portuguese to exercise some control with few personnel

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