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a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

Coronary arteries

blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle

Anterior interventricular artery

a branch of the left coronary artery, which supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles

Left atrium

the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins


The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.Main trunk

right atrium

the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus

pulmonary trunk

the artery that carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries

superior vena cava

receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart

inferior vena cava

receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart

fossa ovalis

A small depression left in the interartrial septum as a result of the closure of the foramen ovale after birth

foramen ovale

Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart..presents in the fetus

coronary sinus

enlarged vein from junctions of coronary veins which empty into the right atrium

SA node

the pace-maker of the heart; where the impulse conduction of the heart usually starts; located in the top of the right atrium..electricity in the heart makes it pump up top area

right ventricle

the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk

left ventricle

the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta

triscuspid valve

A valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral valve in structure but consists of three triangular membranous flaps.

chordae tendineae

"heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. They originate from the papillary muscles.

papillary muscles

Cone-like projections on the ventricular walls, to which the chordae tendineae are attached. The contraction of the papillary muscles and the tightening of the chordae tendineae prevent the valve flaps of the AV valves from turning inside out into the atria.

pulmonary semilunar valves

Valve situated between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery, which guards the base of the pulmonary trunk and prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle.

Atrioventricular groove

Coronary groove or sulcus of the heart which demarcates the borders of the underlying atria from the ventricles.

Mitral valve

a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle

Pulmonary vein

vessels which transport oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.

Aortic valve

a valve at the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta, preventing the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.

AV node

specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart.


period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing.


period when either the ventricles or the atria are contracting

Trabeculae carneae

muscular ridges projecting from the walls of the ventricles of the heart.

Pectinate muscles

prominent muscular ridges along the inner surface of the auricle and across the adjacent anterior atrial wall


blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation


blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation

congestive heart failure

syndrome where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients; as a result, fluid is retained and accumulates in the ankles and legs


an elevation in diastolic or systolic blood pressure.

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

results from narrowing of the coronary arteries over time because of atherosclerosis.


changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls; the early stage of arteriosclerosis.

Myocardial infarction (MI)

condition characterized by dead tissue areas in the myocardium; caused by interruption of blood supply to the area.


layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle.

cardiac cycle

sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart.

1. The hearhut is composed of how many chambers? ______________


2. The right side of the heart collects blood from ______________, and sends it to the ______________.

Body &Lungs

3. This vein brings blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and brain, and deposits it in the right atrium.______________

superior vena cava

4. This valve sits between the left atrium and the left ventricle______________. It is also known as ______________.

bicuspid & mitral valve

5. The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood, originate off of this vessel ______________, just on the far side of this valve ______________.

aorta & aortic

6. Significant blockage of a coronary artery will result in reduced blood flow to, and eventual death of the cells of the heart. The result of this blockage is called a ______________.

heart attack

7. Name three factors, within each person's control, that greatly affect the long-term health of your heart. _______________ ________________ ________________

diet, exercise, smoking

8. The healthy adult heart normally beats approximately how many times each minute? ______________


9. This waxy, fat-like substance is found in the body and may contribute to heart disease by sticking to the walls of arteries. ______________


10.These vessels carry blood away from the heart ______________, while these vessels ______________carry blood toward the heart.

Arteries & Veins

11. This is the name of a group of specialized cells, located within the wall of the right atrium, which initiates the human heart beat ______________.

SA node

Which side of the heart generates the greatest force to move blood?

The left side.

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