How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

97 terms

Psychology Chapter 3a&b Biology

STUDY
PLAY
phrenology
bumps on a skull that can reveal mental abilities and character traits
biological psychologists
those who study the links between biological activity and psychological events
neurons
cells that receive, translate, and send messages throughout the body
sensory neurons
neurons that carry messages to the brain that activate the sensory glands
motor neurons
neurons that carry instructions from brain to other body tissues that cause movement
interneurons
neurons that communicate with each other and process information
dendrites
specialized to receive information (branches out from soma)
cell body
or soma
axon
transmit messages to other neurons, muscles, and glands
myelin sheath
wraps around axon to protect it
action potential
the spike of electric activity passed from one neuron to the next (through axon)
resting potential
when no electric charge is happening
selectively permeable
prevents ions from mixing
positively charged ions
Na+ & K+
depolarized irons
Cl-
threshold
the minimum intensity it takes to trigger a neural impulse
all-or-none
neuron will either fire an impulse or not
synapse (synaptic cleft)
the lapse between the axon of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron (the space between the terminal button on the end of a dendrite and another cell)
neurotransmitters
help carry electrical charge across synapse
exciting
when neurotransmitters excite cell into firing
inhibiting
when neurotransmitters inhibit cell from firing
reuptake
the process when the "sending neuron" reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters
acetylcholine (ACh)
a type of neurotransmitter associated with motor movement (can cause Alzheimer's if excess of deficit)
endorphins
natural, opiate-like, neurotransmitters that act like morphine and link pain control and pleasure
agonist
drugs that mimic neurotransmitters
antagonists
drugs that block neurotransmitters
opiate
(morphine, heroin) causes drowsiness and a euphoria associated with elevated endorphin levels (can change brain chemistry and create tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
endocrine system
a communication system which has glands that secrete hormones that travel through the blood stream and affect other tissues and the brain, influencing out interest in sex, food, and aggression
hormones
chemical messengers created by the endocrine system that travel through the body and affect other tissues
adrenal
endocrine glands located on the top of the kidney that secrete hormones that help arouse the body during times of stress
pituitary
endocrine glands located at the core of the brain that regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands under the influence of the hypothalamus
hypothalamus
controls metabolic functions
nervous system
the electro-chemical communication system that transports information throughout the body
central nervous system
includes the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral
includes the somatic and automatic system which regulate movement and work without conscious thought
nerves
bundled axons that act as "electrical cables" and send messages through the nervous system through sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons
somatic
enables voluntary control of out skeletal muscles by reporting to the brain the current state of the skeletal muscle and carrying instructions back, triggering the body to react
autonomic
operates on its own and controls glands and muscles of the internal organs, influencing glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestion
sympathetic
part of autonomic nervous system which arouses and expends energy
parasympathetic
part of the autonomic nervous system which conserves energy and calms the body
neural networks
cluster of brain neurons
reflexes
automatic responses to stimuli that are governed by neural pathways
knee-jerk
reactions that occur when impulses reach the spinal cord
lesions
the destruction of brain tissue either naturally or experimentally
clinical observation
reveal connections between the brain and the mind
electroencephalogram (EFG)
amplified record of waves caused when electrical activity sweeps neurons across the brain's surface
CT scan
examines brain by taking x-ray photographs that reveal possible brain damage
PET scan
shows picture of brain's activity by showing each brain area's consumption of sugar glucose --> reveals gamma rays which are picked up by detectors on a person's head shows which parts of the brain are active when performing certain tasks
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging
takes detailed pictures of soft brain tissue (and other body parts) by using a strong magnetic field that manipulates atoms into releasing signals
functional MRI
reveals function and structure of the brain by detecting blood flow (blood flow is increased oxygen-laden)
brainstem
oldest and innermost region where the spinal cord swells before entering the skull
medulla
swell of spinal cord after entering the skull (controls functions such as breathing and heartbeat)
pons
sits above medulla and help coordinate movements
reticular formation
network of neurons that extend from the spinal cord to the thalamus (involved in arousal and alertness electrical stimulation) severing can cause coma
thalamus
egg-shaped structures that receive info from senses (except smell) and directs it to the higher brain regions that deal with those senses (directs higher brain replies to medulla and cerebellum)
cerebellum
"little brain", rear of brainstream that processes sensory input and coordination/balance (enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory)
conscious
brain processes most information outside of our awareness
limbic
border between older brain parts and cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotions and drives
hippocampus
processes memory
amygdala
part of limbic system that influences agression and fear (neural clusters) perceives emotions and processes emotional memory
hypothalamus
keeps the body's internal environment in a steady state (below the thalamus)/ monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from parts of the brain
Influences by hypothalamus:
-hunger, thirst, body temp,
-sex ->stimulate->secretes hormones->triggers master endocrine gland->influences hormones released by other glands
-provides pleasure of reward (1954 rat experiment)
addictive disorders
stems from reward deficiency syndrome
reward deficiency syndrome
a genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure, and well-being that leads people to crave what provides the missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings
cerebral cortex
layer of interconnected neural cells that is the ultimate control and information processing center that covers the cerebral hemispheres
glial cells
"give cells" that support neurons (may participate in information transmissions and memory with interaction between the neurons)
frontal lobe
subdivision separated by fissures at the top (front) of the brain/ involved with speaking and muscle movements, making plans, and judgments
parietal lobe
top rear of brain that receives sensory input for touch and body body position
occipital lobe
back of brain that receives information from visual fields
temporal
above the ears that receives information from the opposite hemisphere
frontal lobe influence:
-frontal cortex caused movement (1870)
-controlling movement by matching neural brain activity to help those who are paralyzed
neural prosthetic
artificial body part replacements
parietal lobe influence:
receives input from senses (more sensitive has larger sensory cortex devoted to it)
sensory cortex
-left hemisphere section that receives input from the body's right side (processes body touch and movement sensations)
occipital influence:
visual info and visual cortex (back of brain) goes to other areas to identify words, detecting emotions, and recognizing faces
temporal influence
sound is processed/ travels through route and received in opposite hemisphere
association areas
area in cerebral cortex which are not evolved in motor or sensory functions and integrate information ( memory, learning, thinking, speaking)
aphasia
impairment of language resulting from damage to any of the critical areas
Broca's area
area of left frontal lobe when damaged disrupts speaking (1865)
Wernicke's area
specific area of left temporal love, when damaged, disrupts understanding
visual area
received visual info goes to angular gyrus which re-codes it into auditory form, which Wernicke's area uses to derive it's meaning/ damage leaves a person able to speak, understand, but unable to read out loud
unified whole
specialization and integration create brain as a unified whole (coordination of many brain areas and also specific neural networks)
plasticity
the brain's ability to modify itself after damage (most plastic when child)
explanation on how we use language (Geschwind)
visual area->angular gyrus (auditory cortex)->received & understood by Wernicke's area->sent to Broca's area->controls motor cortex (pronounce words)
constraint-induced therapy
rewire brain by restraining a functional limb and forcing the use of uncooperative limb
reorganize therapy
therapy reprograms the brain/ brain modification
neurogenesis
formation of new neurons
stem cells
can develop into any type of brain cell (debated)/ discovered in human embryo/ neural stem cells can replace for lost brain cells
lateralization
hemispheric specialization (apparent after brain damage)/ left is "dominant" because it can effect reading, writing, speaking, and understanding
corpus callosum
band of neural fibers which connect the two hemispheres and carry messages between them
Right Brain
-things appearing on left of visual field are transmitted to the right hemisphere
-controls perception (inferences)
-more engaged when quick, intuitive, responses are needed
Left Brain
-things appearing on right of visual field are transmitted to the left hemisphere
-more active when a person deliberates over decisions
-speaking and calculation, quick, literal interpretations
consciousness
awareness of ourselves and the environment
cognitive neuroscience
study of brain activity linked with our mental processes (brain activity linked with cognition->perception, thinking, memory, memory, language)
dual processing
information is simultaneously processed on conscious and unconscious tracks/ perception, memory, thinking, language, and attitudes both result w/ ______________.
visual perception track
reorganize and plan future actions
visual action track
guides moment-to-moment actions