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Adenosine Triphosphate

most important energy
-productof both aerobic and anaerobic energy
-3 phosphate molecules
-produced from ADP +Pi+H


Yields energy


needs energy

ATP-PC system

-energy source for activities requiring much energy per second
-examples: sprinting, lifting a heavy weight
-can only provide energy for a
short time

Creatine kinase

stored in muscles, is added to ADP when ATP is broken down, is used to regain energy.
-Has a life of about 20-30 sec. but is regenerated in about 3 minutes.


-a series of 10 enzymatic that metabolize glucose
- occurs in sarcoplasm
-produces energy for both aerobic and anaerobic activities
-results in ATP production from breakdown of glucose
2 phases: 1. energy investment phase and 2. energy generation phase

NET Production

1. Glucose→ 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate
2. ADP→ 2 ATP

Intramuscular glycogen adaptations to exercise

-Increases in Intramuscular Glycogen affect glycolic and aerobic production of ATP
-Endurance training increases IM glycogen
-Weight & sprint activities: increases & no change in glycogen
-Factors affecting IM glycogen in weight & sprint activities:
o Length of training program
o Type of training

Buffering Capacity Adaptations

-buffering hydrogen ions increases performance and recovery in activities that increase IM acidity
-endurance & sprint training increase buffering capabilities

Aerobic ATP Production

-aerobic production of ATP is called oxiditave phosphorylation
- occurs inside the mitochondria

First Pathway

-krebs cycle (citris acid cycle)
-primary purpose is to remove hydrogen ions (oxidation) from carbs, fats and proteins
- O2 is used to produce hydrogen ions

Second Pathway

-electron transport system
-oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria
-produces CO2 and electrons produce ATP- oxidative phosphorylation
-uses CHO and fat for energy, very little protein

Interaction of subtrates

-all systems work at same time to produce ATP, some take more time to generate ATP
-more intense activity, short duration- anaerobic energy sources
-less intense/ long duration makes use of aerobic energy sources
-no one sourse wrkjs at one time, gradual transition from one to another

How long should a V02 test last?

8-12 minutes

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