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I/O Psychology

Industrial and organizational: Area of psychology concerned with the application of psychological principles to the problems of human organizations, especially work organizations.

Social Psychology

Scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the behaviors or characteristics of others.

Primary effect

Theory that early info about someone weighs more heavily than later info in influencing one's impression of that person

Halo effect

The tendency to generalize a favorable first impression to unrelated personal characteristics

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Process in which a person's expectation about another elicits behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation


A set of characteristics presumed to be shared by all members of a social category

Attribution theory

Theory that addresses the question of how people make judgements about the causes of behavior

Fundamental attribution error

Tendency of people to overemphasize personal causes for other people's behavior and to underemphasize personal causes for their own behavior

Cultural truism

Belief that most members of a society accept as self-evidently true


All the goods, both tangible and intangible, produced in society

Social influence

Process by which others individually or collectively affect one's perceptions, attitudes, and actions

Cognitive dissonance

an uncomfortable clash between self-image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and actions

Institutional racism

Discrimination that occurs because of the overall effect of institutions and policies


Prejudice and discrimination directed at a particular racial group

Authoritarian personality

A personality pattern characterized by rigid conventionality, exaggerated respect for authority, and hostility toward those who defy society's norms


An unfair act or series of acts taken toward an entire group of people or individual members of that group


An unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group of people

Frustration - aggression theory

Theory that under certain circumstances people who are frustrated in their goals turn their anger away from the proper, powerful target toward another, less powerful target that is safer to attack.

Altruistic behavior

Helping behavior that is not linked to personal gain

Prosocial behavior

Helping behavior towards others


A loss of personal sense of responsibility in a group


Change of behavior in response to a command from another person, typically an authority figure


Change in behavior in response to an explicit request from another person or group


Voluntarily yielding to social norms at the expense of one's own preferences

Cultural Norm

A behavioral rule shared by an entire society


Shared idea or expectation about how to behave

Defensive attribution

Tendency to attribute our success to our own efforts or qualities and our failures to external factors

Just - world hypothesis

Attribution error based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people


How close two people live to one another


Systematic study of the human use of space, especially in social settings


Concept that relationships are based on trading rewards among partners


Fairness of exchange achieved when each partner in the relationship receives the same proportion of outcomes to investments


The quality of genuine closeness and trust achieved in communication with another person


Relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies directed toward something or someone


Tendency for an individual to observe the situation for cues about how to react

Great person theory

Theory that leadership is a result of personal qualities and traits that qualify one to lead others

Group think

A compulsion by members of decision making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking

Social loafing

Tendency of people to exert less effort when working in a group of people than when working alone


Shift in attitudes by members of a group toward more extreme positions than the ones held before group discussion

Risky shift

Greater willingness to take risks in decision making in a group than independent individuals

Bystander effect

The tendency for an individual's helpfulness in an emergency to decrease as the number of bystanders increases

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