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Social Psych

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I/O Psychology
Industrial and organizational: Area of psychology concerned with the application of psychological principles to the problems of human organizations, especially work organizations.
Social Psychology
Scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the behaviors or characteristics of others.
Primary effect
Theory that early info about someone weighs more heavily than later info in influencing one's impression of that person
Halo effect
The tendency to generalize a favorable first impression to unrelated personal characteristics
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Process in which a person's expectation about another elicits behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation
Stereotype
A set of characteristics presumed to be shared by all members of a social category
Attribution theory
Theory that addresses the question of how people make judgements about the causes of behavior
Fundamental attribution error
Tendency of people to overemphasize personal causes for other people's behavior and to underemphasize personal causes for their own behavior
Cultural truism
Belief that most members of a society accept as self-evidently true
Culture
All the goods, both tangible and intangible, produced in society
Social influence
Process by which others individually or collectively affect one's perceptions, attitudes, and actions
Cognitive dissonance
an uncomfortable clash between self-image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and actions
Institutional racism
Discrimination that occurs because of the overall effect of institutions and policies
Racism
Prejudice and discrimination directed at a particular racial group
Authoritarian personality
A personality pattern characterized by rigid conventionality, exaggerated respect for authority, and hostility toward those who defy society's norms
Discrimination
An unfair act or series of acts taken toward an entire group of people or individual members of that group
Prejudice
An unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group of people
Frustration - aggression theory
Theory that under certain circumstances people who are frustrated in their goals turn their anger away from the proper, powerful target toward another, less powerful target that is safer to attack.
Altruistic behavior
Helping behavior that is not linked to personal gain
Prosocial behavior
Helping behavior towards others
Deindividuation
A loss of personal sense of responsibility in a group
Obedience
Change of behavior in response to a command from another person, typically an authority figure
Compliance
Change in behavior in response to an explicit request from another person or group
Conformity
Voluntarily yielding to social norms at the expense of one's own preferences
Cultural Norm
A behavioral rule shared by an entire society
Norm
Shared idea or expectation about how to behave
Defensive attribution
Tendency to attribute our success to our own efforts or qualities and our failures to external factors
Just - world hypothesis
Attribution error based on the assumption that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
Proximity
How close two people live to one another
Proxemics
Systematic study of the human use of space, especially in social settings
Exchange
Concept that relationships are based on trading rewards among partners
Equity
Fairness of exchange achieved when each partner in the relationship receives the same proportion of outcomes to investments
Intimacy
The quality of genuine closeness and trust achieved in communication with another person
Attitude
Relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies directed toward something or someone
Self-monitoring
Tendency for an individual to observe the situation for cues about how to react
Great person theory
Theory that leadership is a result of personal qualities and traits that qualify one to lead others
Group think
A compulsion by members of decision making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking
Social loafing
Tendency of people to exert less effort when working in a group of people than when working alone
Polarization
Shift in attitudes by members of a group toward more extreme positions than the ones held before group discussion
Risky shift
Greater willingness to take risks in decision making in a group than independent individuals
Bystander effect
The tendency for an individual's helpfulness in an emergency to decrease as the number of bystanders increases