38 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 10

Infancy and Childhood
developmental psychology
The study of how people grow, mature, and change over the life span.
nature-nurture debate
The debate over the extent to which human behavior is determined by genetics and the environment.
twin-study method
A method of testing nature and nurture by comparing pairs of identical and fraternal twins of the same sex.
adoption studies
A method of testing nature and nurture by comparing twins and other siblings reared together with those separated by adoption.
A statistical estimate of the percentage of the variability of a trait within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.
cross-sectional study
A method of developmental research in which people of different ages are tested and compared.
longitudinal study
A method of developmental research in which the same prople are tested at different times to track changes related to age.
Rod-like structures, found in all biological cells, that contain DNA molecules in the form of genes.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The complex molecular structure of a chromosome that carries genetic information.
The biochemical units of heredity that govern the development of an individual life.
A fertilized egg that undergoes a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
The developing human organism, from two weeks to two months after conception
The developing human organism, from nine weeks from conception to birth
Toxic substances that can harm the embryo or fetus during prenatal development.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A specific pattern of birth defects (stunted grown, facial deformity, and mental retardation) often found in the offspring of alcoholic mothers.
The tendency for attention to a stimulus to wane over time (often used to determine whether an infant has "learned" a stimulus.
Following habituation to one stimulus, the tendency for a second stimulus to arouse new interest (often used to test whether infants can discriminate between stimuli)
grasping reflex
In infants, an automatic tendency to grasp an object that stimulates the palm.
rooting reflex
In response to contact on the cheek, an infant's tendency to turn toward the stimulus and open its mouth.
In Piaget's theory, mental representations of the world that guide the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
In Piaget's theory, the process of incorporating and, if necessary, changing new information to fit existing cognitive structures.
In Piaget's theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information.
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, from birth to two years old, when infants come to know, the world through their own actions.
object permanence
Developing at six to eight months, an awareness that objects continue to exist after they disappear from view.
separation anxiety
Among infants with object permanence, a fear reaction to the absence of their primary caretaker.
preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, when two to six year olds become capable of reasoning in an intuitive, prelogical manner
Self-centered, unable to adopt the perspective of another person.
Te concept that physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in appearance.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, when six year olds become capable of logical reasoning.
formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development, when adolescents become capable of logic and abstract thought.
Spontaneous vocalizations of basic speech sounds, which infants begin at about four months of age.
telegraphic speech
Early short form of speech in which the child omits unnecessary words--as telegrams once did ("More milk")
Among newly hatched ducks and geese, an instinctive tendency to follow the mother.
critical period
A period of time during which an organism must be exposed to a certain stimulus for proper development to occur.
A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker.
strange-situation test
A parent-infant "separation and reunion" procecure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child's attachment.
secure attachment
A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion.
insecure attachment
A parent-infant relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger of apathy to reunion.