Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Final Year Exam US History Mr. Bielecki
Terms in this set (108)
Resurgence of Ku Klux Klan
Brought about by post-war reaction to communism and immigration, the KKK grew rapidly during the 1920's. They were anti-foreign, anti-catholic, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, anti-birth control, anti-jew, etc. It was pro-"native" American, pro-Anglo-Saxon, pro-protestant. The Klan spread rapidly, especially in the Midwest and the "Bible Belt" south, where Protestant Fundamentalist Religious Zealots thrived. Popularity of the Klan started to die out by the end of the 1920's but lynching was still legal in many states.
The 18th Amendment made alcohol illegal to make, sell or drink. Supported by crusading churches and most women. The Volstead Act enforced the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages. The south supported this in order to keep it away from the blacks. The West supported it to cut out the troubles of the saloons (like public drunkenness, prostitution, corruption, crime, etc.). Opposition to the 18th Amendment existed in the larger eastern cities. Immigrants were used to "beer gardens' and corner taverns. American tradition of strong drink and weak control of the central government, especially over private lives, gave the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act problems. Majority of Americans did not support the 18th Amendment. There also were not enough agents to enforce it. Legal bars were replaced with "speakeasies" that sold hard alcohol. Rum from the West Indies, cases of liquor from Canada, Home brew and bathtub gin were all consumed in the speakeasies. Some bootleg alcohol resulted in blindness and death.
Three states made teaching evolution illegal in the public schools. One of these states was Tennessee. The "Monkey Trial" in Dayton, Tennessee in 1925. John T. Scopes, a high school biology teacher, was indicted for teaching evolution. Scopes was defended by nationally known attorneys, while former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan ( a religious crazy fundamentalist) joined the prosecution against Scopes. Taking a stand as an expert on the Bible, Bryan was made to appear foolish by the famed criminal lawyer, Clarence Darrow. 5 days after the trial was over, Bryan died of a stroke, no doubt brought on by the strain of the trial. This historic clash between religion and science proved inconclusive. Scorers, the forgotten man of the drama, was found guilty and fined $100. But the Supreme Court of Tennessee, while upholding the law, set aside the fine on a technicality. The Fundamentalists won a hollow victory, because they were made to look like idiots nationally. Fundamentalists are still the core of the Baptist Church and in the Churches of Christ.
What was NOT an outcome of the scopes trial?
A complete legal vindication of a teacher's right to teach evolution in the public schools of Tennessee.
The Innovation of buying on credit.
Possess now, pay tomorrow, this buying on credit created large amounts of debt in order to own new gadgets like refrigerators, cars, radios, etc. New debt made the economy vulnerable to disruptions of the credit structure.
Henry Ford's contributions
Automobiles were the most popular invention. They were the made buy a new method called "assembly-line" production with mass production techniques. Europeans invented the gasoline engine but Americans adapted it. 1890's Ford and Oldsmobile were the first American car companies. By 1918, 69 car companies existed. Detroit became the motorcar capital of America. Henry Ford became known as the "Automobile Wizard" and his "model T" or "Tine Lizzie" was cheap, rugged and reasonable. "Fordism" was known as the modern moving assembly line of the 1920's.
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 1930s that both celebrated and lamented black life in America; Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were two famous writers of this movement.Black artists proudly exulted their black culture and argued for a "new Negro" who was a full citizen and social equal to whites. Hughes and Hurston were writers who wrote in favor of the "New Negro".
The Wall Street Bull Market of the 1920's
The Stock Market became a gambling den during the 1920's. Everyone was buying stocks "on margin", which is when they only put down a small deposit. Everyday citizens overheard rich Wall Street investors talking and would invest in the same items, but with only a deposit (on margin). Example of this would be an elevator operator overhearing a conversation, or a hairdresser, barber, waiter, driver, etc. The National debt skyrocketed to the 1921 peak. Bureau of the Budget was created in 1921 to assist in preparing estimates for submission to Congress as the annual budget. It was designed to prevent extravagant spending in the government. Secretary of Treasury Mellon felt that taxing millionaires prevented them from investing in factories that created jobs. Supporters were called mellonites. They tried to relieve the rich of their tax burden, Mellon engineered a series of tax reductions for the rich from 1921 to 1926. This shifted most of the tax burden from the wealthy to the middle-income groups. He reduced the national debt by $10 billion and was accused of indirectly encouraging the bull market (crash in the market that was to come).
The Republican Presidents of the 1920's and their governmental philosophies
The United States was led by three Republican Presidents during the 1920s, namely Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. This was marked by a "retreat from progressive reform". They believed in serving the public good was less by direct government action and more through cooperation with big business. They also believed in military unpreparedness and political isolationism. The policy of these Republican Presidents was that government should leave the economy alone - they adopted a laissez-faire (free market) policy.
The 29th U.S. president, Warren Harding (1865-1923) served in office from 1921 to 1923 before dying of an apparent heart attack. Harding's presidency was overshadowed by the criminal activities of some of his cabinet members and other government officials, although he himself was not involved in any wrongdoing. An Ohio native and Republican, Harding was a successful newspaper publisher who served in the Ohio legislature and the U.S. Senate. In 1920, he won the general election in a landslide, promising a "return to normalcy" after the hardships of World War I (1914-1918). As president, he favored pro-business policies and limited immigration. During his first years the Supreme Court axed progressive reform legislation like federal child-labor law. Corporations under Harding could expand without any progressive laws restricting them. Anti-trust laws were ignored. Harding died suddenly in San Francisco in 1923, and was succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933). After Harding's death, the Teapot Dome Scandal and other instances of corruption came to light, damaging his reputation.
Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), the 30th U.S. president, led the nation through most of the Roaring Twenties, a decade of dynamic social and cultural change, materialism and excess. He took office on August 3, 1923, following the sudden death of President Warren G. Harding (1865-1923), whose administration was riddled with scandal. Nicknamed "Silent Cal" for his quiet, steadfast and frugal nature, Coolidge, a former Republican governor of Massachusetts, cleaned up the rampant corruption of the Harding administration and provided a model of stability and respectability for the American people in an era of fast-paced modernization. He was a pro-business conservative who favored tax cuts and limited government spending. Yet some of his laissez-faire policies also contributed to the economic problems that erupted into the Great Depression.
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), America's 31st president, took office in 1929, the year the U.S. economy plummeted into the Great Depression. Although his predecessors' policies undoubtedly contributed to the crisis, which lasted over a decade, Hoover bore much of the blame in the minds of the American people. As the Depression deepened, Hoover failed to recognize the severity of the situation or leverage the power of the federal government to squarely address it. He refused to give aid directly to the people, and instead funneled aid into business believing the businesses would pass the funding down to the people by creating jobs. A successful mining engineer before entering politics, the Iowa-born president was widely viewed as callous and insensitive toward the suffering of millions of desperate Americans. As a result, Hoover was soundly defeated in the 1932 presidential election by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
Officially known as the Pact of Paris, it was ultimately ratified by 62 nations who supposedly vowed to "outlaw war". Defensive wars were still permitted though.
Businessmen tried to keep the prosperous American market to themselves by imposing huge tariffs on products imported/exported to and from the United States. There was a fear of cheap goods from Europe, especially during the recession of 1920-1921, kind of like the cheap stuff we get now from China.
Fordney-McCumber Tarriff Law
A comprehensive bill passed by Congress in 1922 to protect domestic production from foreign competition. As a direct result, many European nations were spurred to increase their own trade barriers. Tariffs went from 27% to 38.5% under the new tariff law. President's Harding and Coolidge (pro-big business) were more inclined to increase tariffs than to reduce them, although the Tariff Commission gave them flexibility to increase or decrease tariffs by as much as 50%. IN the 6 years that they were in the presidency, they increased 32 upward tariffs, including dairy products, chemicals and iron. There were only 5 decreases in tariffs, which were mill feed and small items like paintbrush handles. The high tariff increases set off a bad chain of events. High tariffs on European goods prolonged the post war reconstruction of Europe. A war poor Europe needed to sell to the United States in order to recover and to pay their war debts. Europeans also imposed high tariffs back on the United States. Eventually, these problems led to HItler's rise to power.
Teapot Dome and the scandals of the Harding Administration
A scandal that involved the illegal lease of priceless oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California. It implicated Harding's Secretary of the Interior. It was one of several scandals that gave the Harding administration a reputation for corruption. Harding's Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, talked his friend the Secretary of the Navy, into transferring valuable properties to the Interior Department. Then Fall leased the lands to oil men Harry F. Sinclair and Edward I. Doheny after being bribed $100,000 to do it. Citizens got mad that public officials could sell out the nations natural resources. 1924 investigation into the illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits.
International Debt Issues - Dawes Plan
America's insistence of getting its money back helped to create further anger by the Allies against Germany. The French and the British demanded that the Germans make enormous reparation payments (payments to help pay for the war) totaling $32 billion. The Allies hoped to settle their debts with the United States through the German payments. This caused severe German inflations and German society was falling part and so was European finances. Sensible leaders were arguing that war debts and reparations be scaled down or even canceled outright. To Americans this was unacceptable. The Dawes Plan was an arrangement in 1924 that negotiated to reschedule German reparations payments. It stabilized the German currency and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany. This further complicated the financial cycle.
The Dawes Plan
The Dawes Plan was an arrangement in 1924 that negotiated to reschedule German reparations payments. It stabilized the German currency and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany. This further complicated the financial cycle. As U.S. bankers loaned money to Germany, Germany paid reparations to France and Britain and the former Allies paid the war debts to the United States. The money was flowing well into America. President Herbert Hoover declared a one-year debt moratorium in 1931 and before long all the debtors had defaulted except Finland, who continued to pay until 1976. The u.s. never did get all of its money, but it got a lot and Europe paid heavily for it.
Stock Market Crash and the Start of the Great Depression
The catastrophic crash came in October of 1929. It was partially triggered by the British who raised their interest rates. Foreign investors and wary speculators started to dump their insecurities and selling began. Tensions built up to the panicky Black Tuesday. This day, October 29, 1929 when over 16,410,000 shares of stock were sold on Wall Street, it was a trigger that helped bring on the Great Depression. By the end of 1929 stockholders had lost $40 billion in paper values, or more than the total cost of WWI to the United States. The Stock Market Crash began a business depression both at home and abroad. No other industrialized nation suffered so severe a setback. by the end of 1930, more than 4 million workers in the US were jobless. Two years later more than 12 million workers would be jobless. Where workers were not fired, their salaries were slashed. Over 5,000 banks collapsed in the first 3 years of the depression, carrying down with them the life savings of tens of thousands of ordinary people. Countless thousands of honest workers lost their homes and farms. Breadlines formed. Birth rates went down.
The Great Depression the Causes
The Great Depression was caused by overproduction by both farm and factory. The depression was one of abundance, not need. The nations ability to produce goods had become greater than its capacity to consume or pay for them. Too much money went into the hands of a few wealthy people, who invested factories and other agencies of production. Not enough was going into salaries and wages, where revitalizing purchasing power would be more quickly felt. Over expansion of credit through installment plan buying or buying on credit was also part of the problem. Thousands of farms were sold at auction for taxes. People lost everything. People wanted to work but there was no work.
FDR's 1932 Campaign
FDR was the rising star of the democratic party. He was governor of New York and the 5th cousin of Teddy Roosevelt. He was paralyzed by polio as a young man. Eleanor was his cousin and his wife. His Democratic Platform of 1932 promised not only a balanced budget but sweeping social and economic reforms. FDR "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the American People'. FDR preached a New Deal for the "forgotten man". Democrats expression, "Happy Days are Here Again". FDR crushed Hoover in the 1932 election. The election showed a shift in black voters from the Republican Party of Lincoln to FDR and the democratic party. Blacks were the last hired and first fired, and were among the worst sufferers from the depression. They became a vital part of the new Democratic Party. Hard times ruined the Republicans and Hoover refused to change his methods and position in American free enterprise and individual initiative.
The 3 R's
Relief, Recovery and Reform. FDR in his inaugural speech said, "let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." Short range goals were relief and immediate recovery, especially in the first two years. Long range goals were permanent recovery and reform of current abuses, particularly those that had produced the boom or bust catastrophe our country was in (roaring 20's to great depression = boom to bust)
100 Days Congress
Also known as the Emergency Congress, FDR summoned them into a special session to cope with the national emergency. It took place from March 9 to June 16 1933. Members of Congress and the new President FDR cranked out legislation that sought to deal with the desperate emergency the country was in. The Democratic Congress gave FDR a "blank check" to do what he needed to do. FDR's plan embraced progressive ideas like unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, minimum wage regulations, etc.
FDR's attempts to help the Banks
The Hundred Days Congress instituted a bank Holiday and then enacted the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933 that invested the president with the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks. They also enacted the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act which provided for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual deposits up to $5,000. This put an end to bank failures. (F.D.I.C.) FDR ordered all private holdings of gold to be surrendered to the Treasury in exchange for paper currency and then took America off of the gold standard. A managed currency was starting and the goal of FDR's managed currency was inflation, which the believed would relieve debtor's burdens and stimulate new production. Eventually FDR returned the nation to a limited gold standard for the purpose of international trade.
Agricultural Adjustment Act made available millions of dollars to help farmers with their mortgages. It set prices (called parity). They paid farmers not to farm as much of their land. Taxes on food processing plants like mills were to pay for this. The Supreme Court ruled this taxation as illegal and shut the AAA down in 1936. The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 replaced the AAA. The difference was now farmers were paid to plant soil conserving crops or let the soil lay unplanted.
Civilian Conservation Corps was the most popular agency. Provided employment in fresh air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men. Their work was useful including reforestation, firefighting, flood control and swamp drainage. Recruits were required to help their parents by sending most of their pay home.
The Works Progress Administration was authorized by Congress in 1935. The objective of the WPA was employment on useful projects. Spent $11 billion on thousands of public buildings, bridges, and roads. Others counted, controlled or helped wildlife. The Federal Art Project hired artists to create posters and murals. Over 8 years more than 9 million people were given jobs, not handouts.
Federal Securities Act
The Hundred Days Congress passed the "Truth in Securities Act" also known as the Federal Securities Act which required promoters to swear to investors the soundness of their stocks and bonds. This then led to Congress taking further steps to protect the public against fraud and they authorized the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which was designed as a watchdog administration agency.
The Social Security Act of 1935 was one of the most complicated and far reaching laws her to pass Congress. The act provided for federal and state unemployment insurance. It was to provide security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to receive regular payments from Washington. Payments ranged from $10 to $85 a month and were financed by a payroll tax on both employers and employees. Provisions were also made of the blind, physically handicapped, delinquent children and other dependents. Republican opposition to the Social Security Act was huge. Social Security was inspired by the example of some of the more highly industrialized nations of Europe. By 1939 over 45million people were eligible for Social Security benefits in contrast to Europe where welfare programs were universal American workers had to be employed and in certain kinds of jobs to get coverage.
FDR's Court Packing Scheme
During FDR's second term, he was concerned with all of the old men on the Supreme Court bench. They stood in the path of progress. The Supreme Court was ultra conservative and six of the nine old men in black were over seventy years old. Not a single member had been appointed by FDR in this first term. Many of the "Old Guard" Supreme Court Appointees were holding on just to stop "socialism" from spreading to our country through FDR's New Deal policies. FDR asked Congress to let him add a new Justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. The maximum membership could then be 15. FDR pointed to the necessity of injecting vigorous new blood. This idea upset Congress and the American people. FDR's proposal to have Congress allow him to add more Supreme Court Justices was called his "Court Packing Plan". FDR was criticized for trying to break down our system of checks and balances between the three braches of government by having the legislative branch (Congress) allow the executive branch (President) to appoint additional people to the Judicial Branch (Supreme Court). No one knows why but at this time one of the old Supreme Court Justices, Justice Owen J. Roberts, went from voting conservative to supporting liberal laws. Now the Court was little more liberal and supported some of the New Deal programs, like the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) and Social Security. Congress also voted to allow Supreme Court Justices over the age of 70 to retire with full pay, so one of them did, and was replaced with New Dealer Justice Hugo Black. Congress did pass a court reform bill, but it did not apply to the Supreme Court so FDR did not get his way this time. Eventually, so many Supreme Court Justices died or retired that FDR was able to make NINE Supreme Court appointments which was more than any other President since George Washington. Unfortunately, he already angered too many people with the suggestion of "court packing" that very few New Deal reforms passed after 1937.
In 1937, the economy took another sharp downturn, a depression within a depression. Social Security taxes were cutting into people's paychecks and the government cut back on spending because they wanted to maintain a balanced budget. FDR decided to listen to British economist John Maynard Keynes and began a bold program to stimulate the economy by "planned deficit spending".
Legacy of the New Deal
The New Deal preserved free enterprise but purged capitalism of some of its worst abuses. FDR provided reform without revolution. Pushed away communism and fascism and bloody rebellions that were happening in other countries. Many of the rewards of his New Deal Programs can be seen today in bridges, parks, roadways, museums, and the fact that we still have many of the agencies like FDIC, SEC and Social Security.
FDR's "Good Neighbor" Policy
FDR increased good relations with Latin America.
This was called the Good Neighbor policy.
It suggested that the U.S. was giving up its ambition to be a world power and would be content instead with being a regional power, its interests and activities confined to the Western hemisphere. The economic interest in Latin America fell off because of the Great Depression.
Not many investors still had money in Latin America.
Our marines were still hated but left more unprotected.
FDR wanted to ally itself with Latin Americans to help to defend the Western Hemisphere from European dictators who might want to invade.
In 1933 at he Seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, the U.S. endorsed nonintervention.
The last marines departed Haiti in 1934.
U.S. withdrew from Cuba except for the naval base at Guantanamo.
U.S. relaxed its grip on the Isthmus nation of Panama.
The Good Neighbor Policy focused on consultation and nonintervention. In Mexico in 1938, Mexicans seized control of American oil properties.
American investors demanded armed intervention.
FDR did not give it. In 1941 the compromise was settled without intervention, but the oil companies did lose most of their original interest.
The Good Neighbor policies hurt investors, but helped with goodwill towards other countries especially Latin America.
European aggression prior to WWII
Post WWI Europe was held by "totalitarianism". USSR had Joseph Stalin who was purging his country of any political dissidents. Italy saw the rise of fascist Benito Mussolini. Germany saw the rise of the young Adolph Hitler. Hitler had secured control fo the Nazi party by making political capital of the Treaty of Versailles and Germany's depression-spawned unemployment. The desperate German people had fallen in behind a new leader because he promised them hope to escape from the plague of economic chaos and national disgrace that came form the Treaty of Versailles. In 1936, Nazi Hitler and Fascist Mussolini allied themselves in the Rome-Berlin Axis. International gangsterism was also spreading in the Far East, where imperial Japan was on the make.
Japan resented the Treaty of Versailles, and demanded additional space for its teeming millions, cooped up in their crowded island nation. Mussolini attacked Ethiopia in Africa in 1935. The League of Nations could have stopped Mussolini if they woud have enforced an oil embargo, but they did not want to risk global hostilities. If they would have they may have stopped the ongoing march toward WWII. Spanish rebels rose against the government in Madrid and were headed by General Francisco Franco who was aided by Hitler and Mussolini. In 1937 Japanese militarists touched off an explosion at the Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing which led to an all-out invasion of China and was the first real spark of WWII.
a. Responding to the overwhelming popular pressure, Congress quickly legislated the nation out of war by passing the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937.
Taken together, they stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerant country or make loans to a belligerent. This legislation marked an abandonment of the traditional policy of freedom of the seas, a policy for which America had professedly fought two full-fledged wars and several undeclared wars. The Neutrality Acts were specifically tailored to keep the nation out of a conflict like WWI. Storm-Cellar Neutrality proved to be shortsighted. America falsely assumed that the decision for peace or war lay in its own hands and not in those of the evil forces already unleashed into the world. Statutory neutrality was a fake morality. America served notice that it would make no distinction between brutal aggressors and an innocent victim, but would strive to hold the scales even (unfortunately it favored the aggressors). By declining to use its vast industrial strength to aid its democratic friends and defeat its totalitarian foes, it helped goad the aggressors along their bloody path of conquest.
The Neutrality Act of 1935
On August 31, 1935, Congress passed the first Neutrality Act prohibiting the export of "arms, ammunition, and implements of war" from the United States to foreign nations at war and requiring arms manufacturers in the United States to apply for an export license. American citizens traveling in war zones were also advised that they did so at their own risk. President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally opposed the legislation, but relented in the face of strong Congressional and public opinion.
The Neutrality Act of 1936
On February 29, 1936, Congress renewed the first Neutrality Act until May of 1937 and prohibited Americans from extending any loans to belligerent nations.
The Neutrality Act of 1937
The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the rising tide of fascism in Europe increased support for extending and expanding the Neutrality Act of 1937. Under this law, U.S.citizens were forbidden from traveling on belligerent ships, and American merchant ships were prevented from transporting arms to belligerents even if those arms were produced outside of the United States. The Act gave the President the authority to bar all belligerent ships from U.S. waters, and to extend the export embargo to any additional "articles or materials." Finally, civil wars would also fall under the terms of the Act.
Cash and Carry
Hitler now demanded from Poland a return of the areas taken away from Germany after WWI. He sent his mechanized units crashing into Poland in 1939. Britain and France finally declared war, but they were powerless to help Poland which fell to Hilter in just 3 weeks. Stalin came in for his share of old Russlian Poland. WWII was officially launched, and the 1919-1939 truce had come to an end. President Roosevelt speedily issued proclamations of neutrality. Britain and France desperately needed the U.S. to get involved, with our airplanes and other weapons, but the Neutrality Act of 1937 forbid it. FDR summoned Congress for a special session after the invasion of Poland to consider lifting the arms embargo. After 6 weeks of debate a law emerged, with was the Neutrality Act of 1939. The Neutrality Act of 1939 provided that the European democracies might buy American war materials, but only on a "cash-and-carry basis' which meant that they would have to transport the munitions in their own ships after paying for them with only cash. America would avoid loans, war debts and torpedoing of American arms-carriers. FDR was also now authorized to proclaim danger zones where American merchant ships would be forbidden to enter. The new law hurt China, which was blockaded by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The new law clearly favored democracies (especially European ones) over the dictators. Since the British and French navies controlled the Atlantic ocean, the European aggressors could not send their ships to buy American munitions. Overseas demand for war goods helped the US economy out of the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis.
Hitler grew louder and bolder in Europe. In 1935 he had openly condemned the Treaty of Versailles by introducing compulsory military service in Germany. The next year he marched his military into the demilitarized German Rhineland, another way of throwing the finger at the the Treaty of Versaille. France and Britain watched without knowing what to do. Hitlers next step was to exterminate the Jews from Germany.In the end he wiped out over 6 million people, mostly in the gas chambers. Hitler called for the German people to sacrifice "butter for guns" and created a new German air force and mechanized ground divisions.Created the most devastating military machine the world had seen yet. March 1938 Hilter, wthout shedding any blood, occupied German-speaking Austria, his birthplace. The rest of Europe just hoped this would satisfy him. Hitler then began to make demands on the German-inhabited Sudetenland (near Czechoslovakis). A conference in Munich, Germany in September of 1938 had Western European democracies betraying Czechoslovakia to Germany when they consented to Hitler taking the Sudetenland. Appeasement of the dictators symbolized by the word Munich (as in Munich conference) turned out to be a surrender. Less than 6 months later Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia.
FDR found a way to lend or lease American arms to the floundering democracies in Europe. FDR said you could get the guns and tanks back, Senator Taft said that lending arms was like lending bubble gum, you would not want it back once it was used. The Lend-Lease Bill, patriotically numbered 1776, was called an act to further promote the defense of the United States. It sprung up after the election was over. Was said to keep the nation out of war instead of in it. "Send guns, not our sons". America would be an "arsenal of democracy". It would send an unlimited supply of arms to the victims of aggression who would finish the job and keep the war in Europe. Accounts (cost) would be settled by returning the used weapons or their equivalents to the US when the war ended. Isolationists and anti-Roosevelt republicans hated this Bill. The Lend-Lease was one of the most momentous laws ever to pass Congress, and it was a challenge thrown at the Axis dictators. America had sent about $50 billion worth of arms and equipment to those nations fighting aggressors. The passing of the Lend-Lease was basically an economic declaration of war. Now a "shooting" declaration of war could not be far off. The Lend-Lease Bill marked the abandonment of neutrality. The Lend-Lease Bill also had some economic results, gearing U.S. factories for all-out war production. Saved America's own skin when the shooting war burst into America.Hitler recognized the Lend-Lease as an unofficial declaration of war. Until then Germany had avoided attacking U.S. ships. On May 21, 1941 the Robin Moor, an unarmed American merchantman was torpedoes and destroyed by a German submarine in the South Atlantic, outside a war zone. The sinking of American ships had started, but on a small scale at this point.
June 22, 1941 Hitler launched a devastating attack on Soviet Union. FDR sent assistance to the Soviets. Sent $1 billion in lend-lease, the first installment on an ultimate total of $11 billion. Russia halted Hitler at the gates of Moscow. With the surrender of the Soviet Union still a possibility, the Atlantic Conference was held in August of 1941. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, secretly met with FDR on a warship off of Newfoundland. This was the first of a series of history-making conferences between the two statesmen for the discussion of common problems, including the menace of Japan in the Far East. The Atlantic Charter: An eight-point charted accepted by FDR and Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of Great Britain) and endorsed by the Soviet Union that was similar to Wilson's Fourteen Points. It was the new covenant/agreement that outlined the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the end of the war. It argued for the rights of the individuals rather than nations and laid the groundwork for universal human rights. The Atlantic Charter opposed imperialistic annexations and promised that there would be no territorial changes that went against the wished of the inhabitants (self-determination). It said that the people of a nation could choose their own government and regain governments that were abolished by the dictators. It declared for disarmament and a peace of security ( called for a New League of Nations)The Atlantic Charter was applauded by everyone except the U.S. were isolationists had issues with it.
Japanese military was dependent on steel, crap iron, oil and aviation gasoline from the United States. Such assistance to the Japanese aggressor was highly unpopular in America, but FDR had held off an embargo because he was afraid that if he put in place an embargo (stopped trade) then the Japandese would attack the oil rich but defenseless Dutch East Indies. In 1940 America finally imposed the first embargo on Japanese-bound supplies. A freezing of all Japanese assets in the United States and a cessation of all shipments of gasoline and other items of war. Japanese leaders were faced with two painful alternatives:One they could cave under the Americans They could break out of the embargo ring by attacking the oil supplies and riches of Southeast Asia.Late November and early December of 1941, things grew worse with Japan. The State Department insisted that the Japanese withdrawl fully from China. Japanese were unwilling to do this. Officials in Washington after cracking a secret Japanese code knew that Tokyo (Japan) was war.
America refused to shoot first and waited for the attack.
FDR misled by Japanese maneuvers, thought the attack was going to be in British Malaya or the Philippines. No one thought it was going to be Hawaii. Japanese bombers attacked without warning from distant aircraft carriers on "Black Sunday" morning, December 7, 1941. Date that will live "in infamy". About 3,000 casualties were inflicted on American personnel and many aircraft were destroyed. The battleship fleet was virtually wiped out when all eight of the craft were sunk or otherwise immobilized. Numerous small vessels were damaged or destroyed. Fortunately, three priceless aircraft carreris happened to be outside the harbor. An angered Congress the next day recognized the war that had been thrust on them. All but one Congressman voted for war. Germany and Italy, allies of Japan, declared war on December 11, 1941. War had officially begun for America.
Executive Order 9066
Executive Order No. 9066 Unnecessary and unfair, this executive order authorized the brutal plight of some 110,000 Japanese Americans concentrated on the Pacific Coast. The U.S. fearing these Japanese Americans might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion, herded them into concentration camps, even though 2/3 of them were American born, and their loyalty and combat record was admirable. The wave of post-Pearl Harbor hysteria caused many Americans to demand their internment and these internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property and earnings. The wartime Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Japanese relocation in Korematsu versus the U.S. More than 4 decades later in 1988, the U.S officially apologized for its actions and paid reparations of $20,000 to each camp survivor.
Korematsu vs. U.S.
Constitutionality of Executive Order 9066 was questioned, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
Supreme Court ruled that internment of Japanese Americans was justified as the country's need for protection against espionage outweighed individual rights.
American strategy in the War in the Pacific
The U.S. Navy with marines and army divisions were "leapfrogging" the Japanese-held islands in the Pacific. Instead of going directly in for Tokyo, they instead employed the tactic of island hopping and bypassing some of the most heavily fortified Japanese posts, capturing nearby islands, setting up airfields on them, and then neutralizing the enemy bases through heavy bombing. Deprived of essential supplies from the homeland, Japan's outposts would slowly collapse. In January and February key outposts of the Marshall Islands were won by the Americans, especially important were the Marianas, including Guam. From bases in the Marianas, the United States new B-29 super bombers would carry out round-trip bombing raids on Japan's home islands. U. S. .naval forces sank several Japanese carriers in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The Japanese navy never recovered from these massive losses of planes, pilots and ships.
"soft underbelly" pros and cons...why?
British military planners preferred to attack Hitler's Fortress Europe through the "soft underbelly" on the Mediterranean. Faced with British boot-dragging and a lack of resources, the Americans agreed to postpone a massive invasion of Europe. The African compromise was the "Soft Underbelly" (see above definition)
2nd Front Question
FDR had promised the Soviets in early 1942 that he would open a second front on the European continent by the end of the year, a promise that proved impossible to keep. British military planners, did not want to conduct a frontal assault on German-held France. An assault on French-held North Africa was a compromise second front, and not what the Soviets were demanding. The highly secret attack, launched in November 1942, was headed by General Dwight D. Eisenhower. After savage fighting the remnants of the German-Italian army were trapped in Tunisia and surrendered in May 1943.
At Casablanca, FDR and Winston Churchill met in 1943. The Big Two as they were called, agreed to step up the Pacific war, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy and insist upon an "unconditional surrender" of the enemy. This unconditional surrender declaration was an admission of the weakness of the Western Allies, still unable to mount the kind of second front their Soviet partner demanded.
Tehran, the capital of Iran (Persia), was chosen as the meeting place for the Big Three (FDR, Churchill and Stalin). The most important achievement was agreement on broad plans, especially those for launching Soviet attacks on Germany from the east simultaneously with prospective Allied assault from the east.
Meeting solidifying everything agreed upon at the Yalta Conferences, The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
French Normandy, less heavily defended than other parts of the coast, was pinpointed for the allied invasion to take back France. June 6, 1944, the enormous operation that involved 4,600 vessels began. Resistance was encountered by the Germans, who had been misled to believe the blow would be farther north. Allies through air assaults blocked reinforcements to the Germans by crippling the railroads, while worsening German fuel shortages by bombing gasoline plants. The American armored divisions commanded by General George Patton drove across France. The retreat of the German defenders happened quickly when an American-French force landed in August 1944 on the southern coast of France and sept northward. With the assistance of the French "underground", Paris was liberated. Allied forces rolled toward Germany.
Fire-Bombing of Tokyo
Japan Dies Hard. American submarines - "The Silent Service" destroyed 1,042 ships or about 50% of Japans entire life-sustaining merchant fleet. Giant bomber attacks were more spectacular. Reduced the enemy's fragile cities to rubble. A massive firebomb raid on Tokyo destroyed over 250,000 buildings and gutted ¼ of the city.
The Manhattan Project was the development of the atomic bomb (mostly by German scientist who had fled to the United States including Albert Einstein).
Atomic Bomb Decision
U.S. was planning an all-out invasion of main land Japan which would cost hundreds of thousands of American and even more Japanese casualties. U.S., breaking a secret Japanese code, found the Japanese unwilling to unconditionally surrender. At the Potsdam Conference, President Truman (became President after FDR died), met with Stalin and British leaders and issued an ultimatum to Japan. The Manhattan Project was the development of the atomic bomb (mostly by German scientist who had fled to the United States including Albert Einstein). On August 6, 1945, a lone American bomber dropped one atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima Japan. About 180,000 Japanese were killed downed or missing. Two days later Stalin entered the war against Japan. Japan still resisted. American aviators on August 9 dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki. This one killed about 80,000 people. On August 10, 1945 Tokyo sued for peace on one condition, that Hirohito, their Emperor, could remain on his ancestral throne as emperor. The formal end of the war came on September 2, 1945. V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day).
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
White Flight to leafy green suburbs left the inner cities (especially the Northeast and Midwest) black, brown, and broke. Migrating blacks from the South filled up the urban neighborhoods that were abandoned by the departing white middle class. In effect, the incoming blacks imported the grinding poverty of the rural South into the inner cores of northern cities. Taxpaying businesses fled with their affluent customers from downtown shops to suburban shopping malls. Government policies often made this worse. FHA administrators, citing the "risk" of making loans to blacks and other races, often refused them mortgages for private home purchases, thus limiting black mobility out of the inner cities and driving many minorities into public housing projects.
Growth of the suburbs
Government policies in the United States encouraged movement away from the urban centers. Federal Housing Administration and Veterans Administration home-loan guarantees made it more economically attractive to own a home in the suburbs than to rent an apartment in the city. Tax deductions for interest payments on home mortgages provided additional financial incentive. And government built highways that sped commuters from suburban homes to city jobs further facilitated this mass migration. By 1960 one in every four Americans lived in the suburbs. Construction industry boomed making "Levittown's, which were assembly line built homes that all looked alike.
The huge leap in the birthrate in the decade and a half after 1945. After the war the rate of marriage went up, and then more than 50 million babies were born by the end of the 1950's. The soaring birthrate finally crested in 1957. This has created a bulging wave along the American population curve as the oversize postwar generation grew up. It also sent economic shock waves through the following decades.
"Sphere of Influence" world view
By maintaining an extensive Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe, the USSR could protect itself and consolidate its revolutionary base as the world's leading communist country. To many Americans that "sphere of influence" looked like an ill-gained "empire".
War TimeAllies agreed that the Nazism had to be removed from politics. Nazi leaders were punished for war crimes. The Allies joined in trying 22 top culprits at the Nuremberg war crimes trial during 1945-1946. 12 of the accused Nazi's were hung. 7 were sentenced to long jail terms. The Allies could not agree on much else regarding postwar Germany. Some wanted to dismantle German's industries. Soviets wanted enormous reparations from Germany. But the fact was that an industrial, healthy German economy was necessary to the recovery of Europe. The Americans accepted this, but Soviets, afraid of another blitzkrieg, resisted all efforts to revitalize Germany. Germany and Austria were both divided at the end of the war, into four military occupation zones, each assigned to one of the Big Four powers (France, Britain, America and USSR). West Germany eventually became an independent country, but East Germany along with other Soviet dominated Easter European countries, such as Poland and Hungary, became "satellite states" bound to the Soviet Union. Germany was split in two. Berlin, was lying in the Soviet zone. Berlin became a highly symbolic issue for both sides. The Americans organized the gigantic Berlin Airlift.
The Berlin Airlift
For almost a year, flying some of the very aircraft that had recently dropped bombs on Berlin, America pilots ferried thousands of tons of supplies a day into the grateful Berliners, their former enemies. The Soviets gave up and finally lifted their blockade in May of 1949. The governments of East and West Germany were formally established. The Cold War had begun.
A brilliant young diplomat and Soviet specialist, his theory was that Russia, whether tsarist or communist, was relentlessly expansionary. He argued that the Kremlin was also cautious and the flow of Soviet power into "every nook and cranny available to it" could be stemmed by "firm and vigilant containment". Truman embraced Kennans advice when he formally adopted a "get-tough-with-Russia" policy in 1947. His first dramatic move was triggered by word that heavily burdened Britain could no longer bear the financial and military load of defending Greece against communist pressures. If Greece fell, Turkey would collapse and the Mediterranean would go tot he Soviets.
America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan. The doctrine declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure. Containment guided American foreign policy throughout most of the Cold War.
President Truman in 1947 asked Congress for $400 million to bolster Greee and Turkey, which Congress quickly granted. He declared that "it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures". Critics charged that Truman had overreacted by promising unlimited support to anyone "resisting communist aggression". Critics also complained that the Truman Doctrine polarized the world into pro-Soviet and pro-american camps.
Massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe, intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power. The plan was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard's commencement in June 1947.
1949; North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an attack against one of the member nations would be viewed as an attack against them all; protected member nations under American nuclear power; first US peacetime military alliance in history, formal end to US isolationism; inspired Soviet Union to create the German Democratic Republic (Eastern Germany) and explode an atomic bomb in 1949, and set up rival eastern bloc military alliance, the Warsaw Pact in 1955; sparked the massive arms race known as the Cold War
Post-War Japan versus Post-War China
The rebuilding of Japan occurred under General MacArthur who ignored Soviet protests. Top Japanese "war criminals" were tried in Tokyo. 18 of them were sentenced to prison terms and 7 were hanged. The Japanese cooperated. They saw that good behavior and the adoption of democracy would speed the end of the occupation. A MacArthur dictated constitution was adopted in 1946. It renounced militarism, provided for women's equality, and introduced Wester-style democratic government, paving the way for a phenomenal economic recovery that within a few decades made Japan one of the world's mightiest industrial powers.
The opposite happened in China, where a bitter civil war had raged for years between Nationalists and communists. Washington only half way supported the Nationalist government of Generalissimo Jiang Jieshi against his adversary Mao Zedong of the communists. In 1949 Jiang was forced to flee. The collapse of Nationalist China was a depressing defeat for America and its allies in the cold War. All at once nearly 1/4 of the world's population was communist. Truman took the fall for the loss of China.
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
A war, also called the Korean conflict, fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the United States, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The war began in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Catapulted a young Baptist pastor (Reverend Martin Luther King Jr) into the national spotlight as an unlikely champion of the downtrodden and disfranchised. On a day in December 1955, Rosa Parks, a college-educated seamstress, made history in Montgomery Alabama because she boarded a bus, took a seat in the "whites only" section and refused to give it up. She was arrested for violating the city's Jim row statutes and sparked a yearlong black boycott of city busses. This sent a message throughout the South that blacks would no longer submit to segregation.
Brown versus the Board of Education
After a lynching of Black war veterans, President Truman ended segregation in federal civil service and the armed forces. Congress resisted passing any further civil rights legislation and President Eisenhower was not interested in racial issues. The Supreme Court took charge. Chief Justice Earl Warren, a former governor of California, took on the racial issue. The unanimous decision of the Warren Court in Brown versus the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in May 1954 was epic. It reversed the Court's earlier decision of 1896 in Plessy vs. Ferguson that "separate but equal" was allowable under the Constitution. This forced desegregation of public schools. The Deep South organized Massive resistant against the Court's order. More than a hundred southern congressional representatives and senators signed the "Declaration of Constitutional Principles" in 1956 which pledged their unyielding resistance to desegregation. Several states created "private" schools so integration did not apply. In 1957 Arkansas mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in Little Rock's Central High School. Eisenhower was forced to send troops to escort the 9 children to school.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Dulles - "roll back"-
Incoming Secretary of State John Foster Dulles promised not merely to stop communism ("stem the red tide") but to "roll back" its gains and "liberate captive peoples." At the same time, the new administration promised to balance the budget by cutting military spending.
policy of boldness
In early 1954 Eisenhower would relegate the army and navy to the backseat and build up an air fleet of super bombers (called Strategic Air Command or SAC) that were equipped with city-flattening nuclear bombs, which could inflict massive retaliation on the Soviets or the Chinese if they got out of hand. The advantages of this new policy was thought to be its paralyzing nuclear impact and its cheaper price tag. The new "policy of boldness" was put to the test when a key French garrison was trapped hopelessly in Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam. Dulles and Vice President Richard Nixon wanted to use the bombers, but Eisenhower, fearful of another Asian war, held back. At the same time, Eisenhower sought to defuse the Cold War through negotiations with the new Soviet leaders who came to power after dictator Joseph Stalin's death in 1953. The new Soviet premier, Khrushchev, rejected Eisenhower's call in 1955 that called for "open skies" mutual inspection program over both the Soviet Union and the U.S.
Ago Dinh Diem the leader of South Vietnam. Pro-Western and had the monetary aid of the United States.
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Election of JFK
Democrats chose John F. Kennedy, a millionaire from Massachusetts to be their candidate and Lyndon B. Johnson to be his VP. Kennedy was the first major candidate to run who was Roman Catholic. Rumors were spread that the Pope would be running the White House. It was especially bad in the Protestant Bible Belt South. This only brought the northern catholics to the polls quicker in support of Kennedy because of the attacks on his religion.Television may have tipped the scales. The four so-called debates that were televised, Kennedy held his own and did not suffer under Nixon's experience, which everyone thought he would.
Kennedy, with Defense Secretary McNamara, pushed the strategy of "flexible response" which was developing an array of military "options" that could be precisely matched so the gravity of the crisis at hand was dealt with properly, unlike Dulle's and Nixon's doctrine of "massive retaliation". Kennedy did increase military spending on conventional military forces and bolstered the Special Forces (Green Berets).
A war in the country of Vietnam, first between the French and Vietnamese, as France was attempting to hold onto its colony. The second war was between the United States and the communist forces of North Vietnam, as the U.S. was attempting to keep South Vietnam free from communism. The North Vietnamese eventually won, forcing the United States to withdraw. The corrupt, right-wing government of Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon, despite the American monetary aid, had ruled badly since the separation of North and South Vietnam into two countries from one. In a fateful decision in late 1961, Kennedy ordered a sharp increase in the number of "military advisers (US troops) in South Vietnam.
Vietnam Military "advisors"
Another name for the troops we sent into Vietnam in the beginning under Kennedy.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of 1,200 Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, Kennedy stood fast in his decision to keep hands off, and the bullet riddled band of anti-Castroites surrendered. President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
This group of "Freedom Riders" fanned out to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers. A white mob torched a Freedom Ride bus near Anniston Alabama in May 1961, and Attorney General Robert Kennedy's personal representative was beaten unconscious in another anti-Freedom Ride riot in Montgomery. When southern officials were unwilling to stop the violence, Federal marshals were sent in to protect the Freedom Riders.
Martin Luther King, Jr
1929-1968. King was a southern Baptist minister. He became the pivotal leader of the American Civil Rights movement. Non-violent leader, he based his nonviolent beliefs and practices on Ghandi and he became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education. Unfortunately, the war in Vietnam (then called a "conflict") took more of his time and efforts. There were the "Big Four" legislative achievements that crowned LBJ's Great Society program: aid to education, medical care for the elderly and indigent, immigration reform and the new voting rights bill. He avoided the question of separation of church and state by channeling educational aid to students, not schools, allowing funds to flow to hard-pressed catholic institutions.
At a bloody riot in Watts, a black ghetto in LA, Blacks enraged by police brutality burned and looted their own neighborhoods for nearly a week. When things settled down, 31 black's and 3 whites were dead and more than a thousand were injured. The nonviolent ways of Martin Luther King Jr came under attack by the younger much more violent generation of blacks. Deepening division among black leaders was highlighted by the career of Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little) who was first inspired by the militant black nationalists in the Nation of Islam. He changed his last name to advertise his lost African identity in white America. A brilliant and charismatic preacher he was a supporter of black separatism and preached against the "blue-eyed white devils". Ironically, although he converted almost 2 million African Americans to Islam, he was murdered by the Nation of Islam while speaking to a large crowd in New York City. He was supporter of the "Black Panther Party", which used weapons in the streets of Oakland, California. The Doctrine of "Black Power" started to be preached by the SNCC, and stood for smashing everything western civilization has created.
A black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Gulf of Tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Operation Rolling Thunder
A bombing campaign began in 1965 and authorized by President Johnson. This tactical movement relentlessly bombed Viet Cong-occupied land, decimating the landscape of hundreds of miles of land. However, the intricate and enormously large network of tunnels the guerrilla soldiers had built were largely unharmed, and it failed to stop the Viet Cong from continuing to press on.
On January 31, 1968, some 70,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched the Tet Offensive (named for the lunar new year holiday called Tet), a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam. General Vo Nguyen Giap, leader of the Communist People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), planned the offensive in an attempt both to foment rebellion among the South Vietnamese population and encourage the United States to scale back its support of the Saigon regime. Though U.S. and South Vietnamese forces managed to hold off the Communist attacks, news coverage of the offensive (including the lengthy Battle of Hue) shocked and dismayed the American public and further eroded support for the war effort. Despite heavy casualties, North Vietnam achieved a strategic victory with the Tet Offensive, as the attacks marked a turning point in the Vietnam War and the beginning of the slow, painful American withdrawal from the region.
Robert Kennedy, JFK's brother, was winning the primary for the 1968 Presidential nomination when he was shot to death by a young Arab immigrant resentful of the candidates pro-isreal views.
1968 Democratic National Convention
Some 2,500 members of the radical Youth International Party (known as the Yippies) planned a peaceful "festival of light" across the street form the convention hall, but instead found themselves drawn into a fight with the police and the National Guard. The confrontation in Chicago badly tarnished Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey's presidential campaign. His Republican opponent Richard Nixon won the presidency with calls for "an honorable peace" in Vietnam and "law and order" at home.
Richard Nixon - The silent majority
Undaunted by the outcry to pull completely and immediately out of Vietnam, Nixon launched a counteroffensive by appealing to the silent majority who presumably supported the war. He sent Vice President Agnew to attack the "nattering nabobs of negativism" who demanded a quick withdrawal from Vietnam.
Richard Nixon and Vietnam
Richard Nixon won the 1968 election. The first thing he needed to do was quiet the pubic uproar over Vietnam. President Nixon's announced policy called Vietnamization, was to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. Troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. This evolved into the Nixon Doctrine that proclaimed that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments but that in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wards without the support of large bodies of American ground troops.
A war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine". As applied to Vietnam, it was labeled "Vietnamization".
Cambodian Invasion and Bombing
In 1970 Nixon ordered an attack on Vietnam's neighbor, Cambodia. For years the Viet Cong (North Vietnam) were using Cambodia as a spring board for soldiers and weapons. Angry students nationwide responded to the Cambodian invasion with rock throwing, window smashing and arson. At Kent State University in Ohio, the National Guard fired into a noisy crowd killing four and wounding many more. At Jackson State College in Mississippi, a highway patrolman fired into student dorms killing 2 students. Nixon withdrew the American troops from Cambodia the same year, after only 2 months.
My Lai Massacre
American troops had murdered innocent women and children in the village of My Lai in 1968. News of it surfaced in 1970 and drove American citizens further against the war.
Nixon's national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler's anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.
Nixon's visits with China and Moscow ushered in an era of detente, or relaxed tension, with the two communist powers and produced several significant agreements in 1972 including a three-year arrangement by which the "food-rich" United States agreed to sell the Soviets at least $750million worth of wheat, corn and other cereals. More importantly were the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty and the SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) both aimed at halting the threat of nuclear war. Nixon's detente diplomacy did slow the Cold War. Yet Nixon was very anti-communist. The President did though, through his talks, set the stage for America's exit from Vietnam.
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia
The US airfare conducted 3,500 bombing raids on North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia beginning in March of 1969 and continuing for about 14 months. This was prior to Nixon openly attacking Cambodia in 1970.
A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Nixon's reelection campaign staff. The five men were arrested for trying to plant a "bug" or electronic listening device in the Democratic Party's headquarters. A "smoking gun" tape (audio) people could hear that Nixon knew about the break in and tried to assist in covering it up. Before Congress could vote to impeach Nixon for his participation in covering up the break-in, Nixon resigned from the presidency.
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
War Powers Act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 days to bring them home if they disagree.
Warren Burger was appointed by Nixon in 1969 as the 15th Chief Justice of the supreme court. The court he presided over was more conservative than the Warren Court, handing over more power to the states through the court's decisions.A historical court under Nixon, who replaced Warren with a more conservative replacement. It narrowed defendants rights. But it did make fundamental contours of the Miranda decision. Also wrote the abortion decision in Roe v Wade
Sets with similar terms
U.S. History Since 1877
APUSH Unit 14
Other sets by this creator
Mr. Bielecki WWII study guide
CHAPTER 33 REVIEW FOR BIELECKI
chapter 25 Bielecki