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Interpersonal Communication Final
Terms in this set (41)
What is the difference between individualism and collectivism cultures?
Individualism-look to self
Collectivism-look to group for identity
What is the difference between high and low context cultures?
High-Low Context: differences in delivering messages
Low:use language to express as directly as possible (USA)
High: nonverbals (typically collectivist)
What is the differences between low and high uncertainty avoidance?
Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which members feel threatened by vague situations and avoid them
-Low: different is curious
-High: different is dangerous
What is the difference between high and low power distance?
Power Distance: degree to which members of a society accept unequal distribution of power
-High: authoritarian/low power assume equality
-Low: questioning authority encouraged (USA)
What are the co-cultures?
membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture
What does it mean when words are symbolic?
words are arbitrary symbols that have no meaning in themselves
-something that's used to or is regarded as representing something else
worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language members speak
process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others
speaking in a way that emphasizes differences
What are examples of powerless and powerful language?
Powerless- hesitant, tentative, indirect
Powerful- direct, forceful
What is the definition and examples of Ambiguous Language?
words/phrases that have more than one commonly accepted definition
ex: texts gone-wrong (mom wants prego)
Innocuous terms that are substituted for blunt ones
-soften impact of unpleasant information
Be able to write an example of the differences between gender and language
Women: speak tentatively, tend to elaborate, and are aware of emotions
Men: speak in fragments and direct statements
What are the 3 nonverbal functions?
1) Replaces verbal messages
2) Reinforces verbal messages
3) Contradicts verbal messages
What are the characteristics of nonverbal communication?
1) All behavior has communicative value
2) Non-verbal Communication is primarily relational
-defines the relationship we want or have with others
3) Non-verbal Communication is ambiguous
-use perception-checking to clarify others' nonverbal cues
4) Occurs in Mediated Messages
-delays can be perceived negatively
5) Influenced by Culture/Gender
culturally understood substitutes for verbal expression
What are some nonverbal indicators that someone is lying?
-Vocal Errors such as "ah" and "um"
-Tend to give more nonverbal cues
-More speech disturbances (i.e. pause longer, pupils dilate)
-Leakage: signals of deception
What are the types of nonverbal communication?
1) Body Movement: includes face/eyes, posture, and gestures
5) Territoriality- the area that serves as an extension of our physical being (our bubble)
7) Physical Attractiveness
the study of how eyes communicate
the study of touch
What are the 4 distances (nonverbal communication)?
1. Intimate: skin contact to 8"
2. Personal: 18" to 4 feet
3. Social: 4 to 12 feet
4. Public: 12+ feet
What is the difference between Monochronic and Polychronic?
Monochronic: time is thought of as linear
Polychronic: time is conceived more as many things going on at once
What are the listening styles?
1) Task-Oriented Listening: efficiency, accomplishing something
2) Relational Listening: building emotional closeness
3) Analytical Listening: attend to full message before judging
4) Critical Listening: evaluate messages
Name the poor listening habits
1) Pseudolistening- pretend to pay attention
2) Stage Hogging: interested in expressing own ideas, not what others have to say
3) Selective Listening: respond only to things that interest you and disregard everything else the speaker says
4) Filling in gaps: think what we remember makes a whole story
5) Insulated Listening: when a topic comes up you don't want to deal with, you ignore/fail to acknowledge it
6) Defensive Listening: take innocent comments as personal attacks
7) Ambushing: listen carefully only so you can attack what the speaker says
What are the 5 components of listening?
Name the 8 listening responses
1. Silent Listening- staying attentive/non-verbally responding w/o offering verbal feedback
3. Paraphrasing- feedback that restates, in your own words, the message you though the speaker sent
4. Empathizing- showing that you identify with the speaker
5. Supporting- reveals solidarity with the speaker's situation
6. Analyzing- interpretation of a speaker's message
7. Evaluating- appraise sender's thoughts or behaviors in some way
allows easier access to get to know and do things with others
What factors influence our choice of relational partners?
communication about communication
breaks down the rise/fall of relationships in 10 stages
too much familiarity leads to risks of boredom, but we don't want to act predictable either
voluntary relationship that provides social support
What are the types of friendships?
-Short vs. Long Term
-Low vs. High Disclosure
-Task vs. Maintenance Oriented
-Low vs. High Obligation
-Infrequent vs. Frequent contact
system with 2 or more interdependent people who have a common history and a present reality and who expect to influence each other in the future
Creating the family through communication
-reinforce shared goals
-teach moral values
-Stress family concerns
What is the difference between high and low conversation orientation?
High: interact freely/frequently
Low: interact less
What is the difference between high and low conformity orientation?
High: seek harmony, interdependence, obedience
Low: individuality, equality
Name/Define the 4 Family Categories
1. Consensual- high conversation/high conformity
2. Pluralistic- high conversation/low conformity
3. Protective- low conversation/high conformity
4. Laissez-Farre- low conversation/low conformity
Enmeshed vs. Disengaged Relationships
Enmeshed: too much cohesion/consensus; little independence
Disengaged: too little cohesion; disconnected; limited attachment/committment
Name the 5 Conflict Styles
1. Avoidance-ignore/stay away from conflict
2. Accommodation- allow other person to have their way
3. Competition- involves high concern for self, but little concern for other person
4. Compromise- gives both people at least some of what they want, although both sacrifice part of their goals
5. Collaboration- satisfies all parties involved
What are the four horsemen? (Toxic Conflict)
1. Criticism- attack character
2. Defensiveness- deny responsibility; counterattacks
3. Contempt- belittles and demeans
4. Stonewalling- withdrawing, shutting down dialogue
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