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Self quizzes and true/false questions for Unit test #1. Chapters #1, 3, 5, 6, and 7


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Organisms without a membrane-bound nucleus and without compartmentalization are called what?


Organisms with a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are called what?


What scientific advances influenced microbial classification?

The use of electron microscopy to study detailed structures of microbial cells, the determination of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of many microbes, and the sequencing of nucleic acids and proteins from a wide variety of microbes

Comparison of ribosomal RNA from a variety of organisms led to what classification schemes?

Two-domain classification scheme

How would you best describe bacteria?

Cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan

How would you best describe archaea?

Usually live in extreme environments, exhibit unusual metabolic characteristics, and plasma membrane composed of unique lipids

Name a microorganism that the domain Eukarya includes


Name a major type of protist

Algae, protozoa, and slime and water molds

What is a diverse group of microorganisms that are multicellular, form hyphae, and absorb nutrients from the environment called?


What do viruses require?

Host cells to replicate

What is the name for an infectious protein that causes spongiform encephalopathies?


In the scientific method, and educated guess used to explain observations is called what?

A hypothesis

What would microbiologists consider to be an important attribute of life?


What was most likely the first self-replicating molecule on the primitive earth?


Why was RNA most likely the first self-replicating molecule?

It can catalyze chemical reactions, it can regulate gene expression, and ATP (the energy currency of the cell) is composed of a ribonucleotide

The universal phylogenetic tree was constructed from comparison of which molecule amongst diverse organisms?


According to the universal phylogenetic tree...?

The eukarya and the archaea are more closely related and evolved from a common ancestor after the bacteria

Describe the origin of the eukaryotic organelles?

The endosymbiotic hypothesis

The hydrogen hypothesis describe the evolution of which eukaryotic organelle?


A major source of genetic diversity in bacteria is what?

Horizontal gene transfer

Why is the traditional biological species concept applied to some eukaryotes not valid for bacteria?

Because bacteria reproduce asexually

What is the name for a collection of bacterial or archaeal strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains?


What are important methods to microbiologists?

Microscopy, culture techniques, and genomic analysis

Who constructed simple microscopes, observed bacteria and protists, and reported his findings to the Royal Society of London?

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

What observation made by Francesco Redi refuted the idea of spontaneous generation?

He covered pieces of meat and they did not produce maggots spontaneously

Which scientists contributed to disproving spontaneous generation?

Francesco Redi, John Needham, and Lazzaro Spallanzani

Which scientist linked silkworm disease with a fungus?

Agostino Bassi

What the processes of heating liquids to destroy undesirable microbes called?


Who first used phenol in surgery to prevent microorganisms from entering the wounds?

Joseph Lister

Make a statement to best illustrate Koch's postulates?

The suspected organisms are isolated and grown in pure culture

Why is agar an ideal solidifying agent for growing bacteria?

Because it is not broken down by most bacteria, it is in liquid form at 100 degrees celsius, it is in a solid form at 50 degrees celsius

Who was the first scientist to knowingly use attenuated bacteria in vaccination?

Pasteur and Roux

Name major discoveries in the field of immunology?

Injection with attenuated microorganisms that provided immunity, discovery of antibodies, and the discovery of immune system cells

Who made the discovery that soil bacteria could oxidize iron, sulfur, and ammonia to obtain energy?

Sergei Winogradsky

What is the name for the genetic information that an organism contains?


What is the name for molecules made by combining two or more different DNA molecules together?

Recombinant DNA molecules

Which field of microbiology that studies the spread of communicable disease, detects outbreaks, and implements appropriate control measures called?


Which field of microbiology that studies the role of divers microorganisms in the environment?

Microbial ecology

Which field of microbiology researches new uses for microbes and and ways of culturing and isolating their products?

Industrial microbiology


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Microorganisms are always one millimeter or less in diameter


Classification of microbes is difficult due to their vast diversity


The five-kingdom classification system is widely accepted and used in the field of microbiology


Viruses, viroids, and virusoids are examples of cellular entities studied by microbiologists


All bacteria are pathogens, or disease-causing organisms


The archaea are different than the bacteria in regards to cell wall composition and plasma membrane lipids


The domain eukarya includes some microbial members


Together, algae and cyanobacteria produce about 75% of planet's oxygen


Most fungi are unicellular


Viruses cannot live outside a host cell


Scientific theories are proven absolutely with many observations and experiments


Hypotheses that are refuted through experimentation are of no value to the scientific community


Unlike other fields of microbiology, the study of microbial evolution does not follow the scientific methods


The primitive earth was hospitable for the evolution of early life


Organisms alive today can assist scientists in understanding the origins of life


Microbial fossils indicate that microbial life began approximately 3.5 billion years ago


Due to its ability to do cellular work, DNA was likely the first self-replicating molecule on the planet


In the RNA world, RNA was capable of storing, copying, and expressing genetic information, as well as catalyzing other chemical reactions


The appearance of cyanobacteria-like cells released oxygen and altered the Earth's atmosphere allowing the evolution of aerobic respiration


The universal phylogenetic Tree is based on comparison of small subunit rRNA molecules


Evolutionary distance between organisms can indicate definitely when they diverged from one another


The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is well known and characterized


Organisms with similar nucleotide sequences are more distantly related evolutionarily


The endosymbiotic hypothesis is generally accepted as the origin of eukaryotic organelles


In the hydrogen hypothesis, if an endosymbiont developed the capacity to perform aerobic respiration, it evolved into a mitochondrion


Sexual reproduction is the primary means of generating genetic diversity in the archaea


The bacteria and the archaea are easily classified using the biological species concept of eukaryotes


The linnaean binomial classification system is applied to the bacteria and the archaea


Microbiology is defined both by the organisms it studies and the tools used to study them


Culturing microorganisms outside of their natural environment provides valuable information about their ecology


Scientists have been observing organisms with microscopy since the 1600s


The theory of spontaneous generation advanced the field of microbiology


Many scientists throughout the 1700s to 1800s disproved the theory of spontaneous generation through repeated experimentation and observations


The belief in spontaneous generation was an obstacle to the development of microbiology as a scientific discipline


Pasteurization is widely used today to destroy undesirable microbes in food and beverages


The use of antiseptics in the 1800s transformed the field of surgery and provided strong indirect evidence for the role of microorganisms in disease


The first direct demonstration of the role of bacteria in causing disease came from the study of anthrax


Koch's postulates are applicable and feasible for all microbes


Injection of attenuated virus is usually lethal



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In what way are bacterial and archaeal cells similar?

In cellular organization

How are bacterial cells that grow in irregular groups and divide in random planes are characterized as what?


Which characteristics contribute to variation in bacterial and archaeal size and shape?

Surface area-to-volume ratio, presence of filamentous structures, and cytoskeletal elements

Describe the layers of bacterial cellular organization (starting internally and working outward)

Cytoplasm, plasma membrane, cell wall, and capsule

What is the purpose of the nucleoid in bacterial and archaeal cells?

Localization of genetic material

What is the function of the plasma membrane in bacterial cells?

To detect and respond to chemicals in the surrounding environment, to provide a selectively permeable barrier, and to facilitate important metabolic processes

How would you best describe the current understanding of the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure?

Phospholipid bilayer with peripheral and integral membrane proteins

Why are hopanoids important to bacterial cells?

Because they likely provide membrane stability

How would you best describe the bacterial cell wall?

It protects the cell from osmotic lysis, contributes to pathogenicity, and site of action of several antibiotics

Most gram-positive bacterial cells exhibit which characteristics?

Thick layer of peptidoglycan with teichoic acids and small periplasmic space

Most gram-negative bacterial cells exhibit which characteristics?

Thin layer of peptidoglycan without teichoic acids, large periplasmic space, and outer membrane

What is the function of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on gram-negative bacterial cells?

To assist in evading the host immune response, to contribute to the negative charge on the cell surface, and to create a permeability barrier

Why do gram-positive cells stain purple?

Because ethanol shrinks the peptidoglycan pores and prevents loss of crystal violet

If bacterial cells treated with lysozyme are placed into a hypotonic solution, what would be the result?

The cells would likely swell and lyse

How do slime layers assist bacterial cells?

By facilitating motility

What is a unique feature of archaeal cell s-layers?

They are located just outside the plasma membrane

Why are archaeal membrane lipids unique?

Because they contain branched hydrocarbons derived from isoprene units, they are attached to glycerol by ether links, and they are often composed of C20 diethers and C40 tetraethers

What is the best way to describe the most common archaeal cell wall?

S-layer composed of glycoproteins or proteins

How would you best describe the function of the bacterial cytoskeleton?

It facilitates cell division, localizes proteins to certain sites in the cell, and determines cell shape

Ladderlane lipids compose which of the following bacterial organelles?


When aquatic bacteria are living under phosphorus-limited conditions with abundant carbon availability, which of the following structures may be visible via microscopy?

Glycogen inclusions

Which structures allow aquatic bacteria to orient themselves in the earth's magnetic field?


What is the function of ribosome in the bacterial cell?

To synthesize proteins

Give a true statement regarding plasmids

The replicate autonomously

What is the name of a bacterial cell with flagella spread evenly over the whole surface?


What is the primary function of bacterial flagella?


How do archaeal flagella differ from bacterial flagella?

They are thinner than bacterial flagella, they are composed of multiple subunit types, and their flagellum is solid instead of hollow

What is flagellar movement driven by?

Proton-motive force

Which bacterial movements are type IV pili associated with?

Twitching motility

What allows for bacterial cells to sense a chemical gradient and respond appropriately?


What is a true statement regarding bacterial endospores?

Endospores survive in nutrient limited conditions

Which structure of the endospore contributes to its resistance to heat and other lethal agents?

The exporium and spore coat, the inner membrane, and the core

What has viviparity been observed in?

Epulopscium fishelsoni


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Bacteria and archaea are uniform in shape and size


Pleomorphic cells are variable in shape and lack a single, characteristic form


Larger cells have a greater surface area-to-volume ratio


Bacterial and arachaeal cells share a common cell organization


Peripheral proteins in the plasma membrane are easily removed and comprise up to 30% of membrane proteins


Scientists agree upon all aspects of the fluid mosaic model


At higher temperatures, bacterial phospholipids have more saturated fatty acids


Hopanoids in bacterial cell membranes contribute significantly to the world's petroleum formation


Peptidoglycan is common to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells


Periplasmic space comprises a larger portion (20-40%) of the gram-positive cell wall


The component of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), lipid A, elicits an immune response by an infected host


In the gram staining preocedure, iodine is used to promote dye retention


Capsules are layers outside the cell wall that are well organize and not easily washed off


S-layers are currently being studies for their potential use in the field of nanotechnology


Archaeal membrane lipids are capable of forming pentacyclic rings


Archaeal cell walls have the same chemical composition as bacterial cell walls


Eukaryotic and bacterial cytoskeletons have analogous components


Polyphosphate granules store phosphate in bacterial cells living in nutrient-limited conditions


Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes have the same make up and size


All bacteria have one circular chromosome


Bacteria cells can lose plasmids spontaneously


Type IV pili are involved in bacterial motility and uptake of DNA during transformation


Chemotaxis is best described as random, aimless movement in bacteria and archaea


Endospore position in the sporangium is valuable for identification of some bacterial species



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The genetic material found in a virion is usually what?

Either DNA or RNA

Viral particles are composed of what?

DNA or RNA, a coat of protein, and layers of carbohydrates, lipids and additional proteins

What is the best microscopic methods for studying viruses?

Electron microscopy

What is the function of the viral capsid?

To the protect the viral genome

The Tobacco mosaic virus exhibits which type of capsid symmetry?


An example of a virus that exhibits binal symmetry is known as what?


Viral spikes or peplomers are involved in what?


Which structures are associated with the influenza virus?

Neuraminidase enzyme, hemagglutinin protein, and glycoproteins

The most common viral nucleic acid types are what?

dsDNA and ssRNA

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