The Renassance and Reformation
When was the Black Plague?
How was the Black Plague spread?
bacteria from the fleas on the rats; the rats on the ships would travel and once boats were docked, they would flee the city and spread the plague
What were the two different strains of the Black Plague and how were they spread?
Bubonic - flea bites/ rat bites
Pneumonic - coughing
How many people died?
every 1 in 2
What were the symptoms of the Black Plague?
a lump in lymph note, fever, delirious, throwing up blood, then die
How would the people in the Renaissance times cure people who were sick?
they would bleed them, which is taking blood from the ill person
Who did the plague strike?
society but certain people (priest and physicians) were hit harder
How did the black plague contribute to the end of feudalism?
peasants were dying, so the ones who were left were demanding concessions and the skilled artisans demanded higher pay because of the demand for the product
How did the black plague contribute to a higher religion?
people became more religious so that they could ensure salvation
What is humanism?
the attitude of the renaissance people reemphasizing the good things about being human. life after death was not their sole purpose anymore
Why did the renaissance start in northern Italy?
italy was a place of trade and because of the trade, they accumlated more wealth. so they had more time to make advances in other things
How was wealth determined in the renaissance differ from wealth determination in the feudalism?
trade opposed to land ownership
Who was Cosimo Medici?
a wealthy italian who bought a lot of the artwork for italy; he was also the head of the council of florence
What does renaissance art glorify?
How is renaissance art different from midevil art?
medieval art portrays the Christian community and downplayed the individual
What is Chiaroscuro?
contrasting dark and light, shading to give the illusion of depth
What is linear perspective?
adjusting the size of the figures to give the viewer a feeling of community with the painting
How did oil paints change art?
they permitted leisurely, delicate work and ensured more permeant and clearer colors
Who was the biggest supporters of the renaissance artist?
What was art used for in the renaissance?
to display a persons wealth
Who was Giotto Di Bondone?
"father of the Renissance Paintings"
What was Giotto Di Bondone known for?
his (religious) frescos and the pope once asked him for a sample of his work, and he drew a perfect circle and was highered
Who wsa Lorenzo Ghiberti?
a goldsmith who won a competition in Florence that allowed him to make the bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral
Who was Donatello?
Lorenzo Ghiberti's apprentice, best remembered for his work in bronze
Who sculpted the first free standing nude and what was it?
Donatello and it was David
Who is Masaccio?
a florentine painter who was influenced by Giotto; there are only 4 remaining works of art that are certified to be his
Who was Fra Angelico?
religious, painted frescos, used intense colors, painted in the Chapel of the Sacrament in the vatican
Who was Sandro Boticello?
a studios sickly child, who worked for Fra Angelico; painted in a dreamlike quality, an unreality highlighted by the beautiful faces (used bright colors)
Who was Sanaorola?
painted mainly religious things, but preached against the worldiness of the church because he thought humanism is evil, eventually he doesnt know where to stop and gets burned at the stake
What set Leonardo di Vinci apart from other renaissance artist?
his classical themes and bright colors and he painted in a dreamlike quality, with outlined beautiful faces
What was Leonardo di Vinci's most famous piece of artwork?
the Mona Lisa
Who was the quintessential renaissance man and why?
Leonardo di Vinci because he was good at arts, science etc
Why were Leonardo di Vinci's notes unique and what were they like?
they were written on a mirror image; some of the drawings were human anatomy (studied corpses) and mechanical designs
Who painted The Last Supper?
Leonardo di Vinci
Where was Michaelangelo born?
How did Michaelangelo study the human body form?
the church gave him corpse and to thank them, he donated a big cross
What did Michaelangelo consider himself?
What is the most famous work of art Michaelangelo did?
the ceiling at the Sistine Chapel
Who was Filippo brunelleschi?
a sculptor and goldsmith, math helped him to sculpt, helped the duomo architecture become possible because he created the curves of the cupola without supporting framework
Who was Erasmus?
a important writer and philosopher in the renaissance
What did Erasmus know for?
the translation of the bible into the vernecular, which caused much contraversery becuase people could now interpert it for themselves
Who was St. Thomas More?
an english man, important renaissance writer who was put to death because he didnt bow down to the church, he wrote a book called Utopia
What did Cervantes write?
Who invited the printing press?
Who was Tetzel?
a person who traveled through germany as the front man the church selling indulgences
What is Simony?
Church leaders were buying and bidding on bishop rig rather than getting qualified spiritual leaders, you are getting people who have the most money
Where was Martin Luther from?
What is the Diet of Worms?
when Luther is convicted of heresy and excommunicated from the Catholic Church
When did Martin Luther post the 95 thesis?
october 31, 1517
What was the biggest difference between Lutherianism and Catholicism?
Lutheranism believes that salvation is through faith alone (not works)
What are some minor differences between Lutheranism and Catholicism?
less emphasis on the saints, simple churches, more emphasis on scripture, less emphasis on the sacraments, open to individual interpretation, no pope
Where was John Calvin from?
he was a french lawyer but lived in Switzerland
Why did John Calvin start the Calvinist sect?
because Martin Luther did carry reform far enough
How did John Calvin's ideas differ from Luthers and Catholics?
didnt believe in priesthood at all, neither faith or good works can get you to heaven, predestination
What is predestination?
a belief of the Calvinist; before you are even born, God has chosen whether or not you will be saved (nothing will alter your faith)
Where is the center of the calvinist movemnt?
Why was Lutheranism so appealing to people?
because of the printing press and financial reasons, the people in Europe payed a very big tax to the Church every year, but with Lutheranism, the finacial burden was relived