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chapter 3


the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place


Overall weather in an area over a long period of time


an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and its North and South Poles


a measure of how hot or cold something is


Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun


the time when day and night are of equal length


shortest and longest day of the year

greenhouse effect

trapping of heat by the atmosphere

global warming

a rise in average global temperatures

rain shadow

dry area found on the leeward side of a mountain range


a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line


a treeless grassy plain


a fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation


a steady flow (usually from natural causes)

natural vegetation

plant life that grows in a certain area if people have not changed the natural environment

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